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HISTORY OF THE 



Scottish Expedition 

TO NOBWAY IN 1613. 



THOMAS I^ICffELL, C.L 

Htr Majttly'i Cflun/ Gnurvljer Nmaaf. 



JDfirntion: 

T. NELSON AND SONS, PATERNOSTER ROW. 



CHEISTIANIAi T. BENNETT, Tourist Aqbjt. 
1886. 



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BY GRACIOUS PERMISSION, 

Hig Majesty OpcAf^ IL 

KINO OF SWEDEN AND NORWAY, 



n,<jr.=^-h,Go(.)gle 



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^Ig^ccfacc. 



The idea of investigating the story of the Scottish 
Expedition to Norway in 1612 occurred to the 
author on a trip through the beautiful vaUeya of 
Romsdal and Oudhrandsdal in the autumn of 1884— 
many of the statements made on that subject in guide- 
books, and in almost every work on Norway, having 
appeared incredible when he left the highway and 
explored the oM bridle-path along which the Scots 
marched on their way to Sweden. 

Subsequent researches in State Archives, made with 
the kind assistance which has been heartily acknow- 
ledged in the pages that follow, resulted in the dis- 
covery of official documents hitherto unavailable, and 
with their aid the traditional account of the " Skotte- 
tog " has, in its chief outlines, been reduced to strict 
historical proportions. 

The information thus acquired was utilized by the 



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■viii PREFACE. 

author in a lectiire delivered in 1885 at the Univer- 
sity of Christiania, in the gracious presence of His 
Majesty the King of Sweden and Norway, for the 
henefit of the Building Fund of the Anglican Church 
in that city. 

It is with the same practical object that, with the 
generous co-operation of the publishers, the lecture has 
been embodied in the little book now commended to 
the attention of those who take an interest in Scot- 
tish history, as well as to that of the British and 
American travellers who visit in such largely increas- 
ing numbers the beautiful and hospitable valleys and 
highlands of Norway, in which they find so much 
sympathetic evidence of a common origin of both 
race and language. 

LoKDOH, March 1886. 



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^onitnte. 



PART I HISTORICAL. 

a OF iHrOBHATTOR, 

LLUAB WAD, AND BWBDISH MBASUIUIS PO 



[. BDocBsapuL HAKca ot uSsHicaaotm thbocgh hoswat, ... st 

'. OBQANIZATION O 



O PBOOEBD WtTB A SMALL POBnOH Of 
LKVin TO HOBWAT, 
r. TBB tANDIHO OF ALBSANDIR BAHBAT IN BONSDALBtT, 



[, THE COMBAT AT KBIHQBLBN, 



PART II TRADITION. 



[. NOBWKOIAN TRADITTONB COLLSOISD BT THB BIT. ] 



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PART III.— APPENDICES. 
Historical I>ocunients. 



n BBCOBD OVFIDE, LOHDOH, ... 
E QENBBAL BB3ISTBK BOCHE, 



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Part i 
Historical. 



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SOURCES OF INFORMATION. 

More th&a two centuries and a half have elapsed 
since the date of the occurrence so well known in 
Norway as the " Skottetog," or Scottish expedition, of 
which but little has hitherto been authentically known 
in Scotland. Notwithstanding, therefore, the conspic- 
uous position which the so-called "Sinclair Expedition" 
holds in the traditions,* and to some extent also in 
the literature and the art,f of Norway, a fresh ex- 
amination of the subject by the impartial light of 
historical truth is justified by the recent discovery of 
severaJ documents in the State Archives of England, 
Scotland, and Sweden. 

* For Ncatraguui traditions aud liteFature, see Fikrt II. 

+ Two of the moBt celebrated artists of Norway— Gude and TiedemWin 
— have jointly produced a very beautiful, but fanciful, picture repreaent- 
ing the arriv^ oi "Colonel Sinclair" on the coart of Romadalen with five 
or aix vcBsels, and the plundering of the inhabitants by hia foUowera, one 
of whom, in the garb of a Calvinietic priest, in engaged in abducting a 
fair Norwegian maiden, while the reat are engaged in looting. 



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12 SOURCES OF INFORMATION. 

Although Momiichhofen's expedition through Stor- 
dalen, and the Scottish invasion of Bomsdalen and 
Oudbrandsdalen which formed an integral but unsuc- 
cessful part of that expedition, took place in 1612, 
no account of the latter appeared in print earlier than 
the year 1688, when PufFendorff wrote his " Intro- 
duction to Swedish History ;" and it was only three 
years later Uiat Widikindi, another Swedish historian, 
gave a narrative of tt in a History of Gnstavna 
Adolphus. 

Among Banish historians, Niels Slange was the 
first of any eminence to reproduce the now palpable 
errors of Puffendorff and Widikindi, in a History of 
Christian IV., written in 1732. 

In 1782, the subject of the Skottet(^ first be- 
came popularized in Norway by the publication, in 
a periodical journal called the Daneh MxiseuTn, of the 
spirit-stirring poem by Edvard Storm, which Nor- 
wegian children still learn by heart and in song, and 
which has even been well circulated in the English 
and German languages.* 

But the first really important contribution towards 
the history of the event was made in 1838, when 
Dean Kr&g of Vaage dedicated to the descendants of 

* A trotulaUon of it ie i^ven In Part II. 



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SOURCES OF INFOEMATIOtr. 13 

the Bonder * who had fought at Kringelen the Sagae, 
or traditions, he had personally collected in Gud- 
brandsdalen, annotated with sach historical references 
as were then avaUablcf 

While the traditions he has so scrupulously pre- 
served for us are of great interest, if only because 
they indicate plainly the source of the information 
on which Swedish, Danish, and even Scottish accounts 
of the expedition into Eomsdalen had been chiefly 
based, he enriched history with copies of the first and 
only documents that had apparently ever been drawn 
before his time, from State or other archives, relative 
to the Scots who landed in Bomsdalen. Those docu- 
ments were : a Beport by the Norwegian Stadtholder, 
Envold Kruse, to the Danish Chancellor, dated Aggers- 
huus, l7th September 1612; and three deeds of gift 
of land (all dated 3rd September 1613) to Lars 
Hage, Peder Randklev, and Berdon Sejelstad, for their 
bravery and loyal devotion on that occasion. 

In that laborious little work Dean Krag pointed 
out that, with the exception of Kruse's first Report (of 
which he had obtained a copy from Copenhagen), all 
the writers after Puffendorff (1688) and Widikindi 

* Ths Norwegian term for peasant proprietors or yeomen ; »ing. Bonds. 
In ectenio ia given of thin work in Part II. 



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14 SOURCES OF INFORMATION. 

(1691) had repeated, more or less, only what those 
two historiaiis had related. He also showed that 
Storm's poem had been preceded by a popular ballad 
on the same subject, and of which he collected and 
printed as much as was still extant in Qudbrandadalen. 

More recent historical research resulted in the dis- 
covery, also at Copenhagen, of a second Report from 
Envold Eruae, the Stadtholder, dated 3rd October 
1612. It was first published between 1858 and 
I860,* and was reproduced in a little work printed 
at Molde in 1877.t 

The history of the Scottish expedition to Norway 
in 1612 has, therefore, until this day been supported 
in Scandinavian accounts by only two documents of 
indisputable authority — namely, the two Reports of 
Envold Kruae, of which the second was brought to 
light less than twenty years Etgo. 

Nor have Scottish and English historians J and 

writers, so deeply interested in the question, been 

more aucceasful in discovering and making use of 

" Vol. II. ot " Samlingec til det Norska Folks Sprog og Historie." 
+ "Skotteb^t eftar Folkeangnet og HistorieQ." 0. O. Olafeen, 

Molde, 1877. 
t See Sir Robert Gordon's "History of the Eatldom of Sutherland ;" the 

"History of Caithness," by J. T. Caldarj Chambers's "Domeetic 

Annals of Scotland;" the "History of GustavuA Adolphus," by B. 

Chapman; "Memoirs and Adventuies of Sir John Hepburn, Kt.;" 

Lfljog's " Residence in Norway ;" Clarke's " Travels." 



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SOVSCES OF INFORMATIOS. 16 

authentic contemporary documents. A careful exam- 
ination of their several descriptions, both of Monnich- 
hofen's expedition and of that of the Scots, reveals 
the fact that their information had been derived either 
from the old Danish and Swedish historians already 
mentioned, or more recently from the traditions cur- 
rent in Gudbrandadalen, Those accounts may conse- 
quently be dismissed as unworthy of serious attention. 
But the Public Record Office in London has at last 
delivered up its long-hidden treasures, consisting of the 
correspondence that passed between King James I. of 
England (VI. of Scotland) and Sir Robert Anstruther, 
his ambassador or envoy at Copenhagen, on the sub- 
ject of the Scottish levies for Sweden in 1612.* In 
the General Register House, Edinburgh, have also been 
preservedf the acts and proclamations of the Scottish 
Privy Council in respect of those proceedings ; while 
the keeper of the State Archives in Stockholm has 
supplied copies of several documents | that have not 

* Rxammed aod kindly copied by the late Mr. Alfred KingBtoa of 
the Public Itecord Office, Londoiu 

.|- CcmunimiCBted by Mr. T. Dickson, Curator of the Hiatorical Depart- 
nient, ItsgiBter Eoiue, Edinbnrgli, to whom the author is indebted for 
much valuable ataistance. 

t Search was made fur those dooumenta by the orden of the Rii^ of 
Sweden and Norway. In this reaped the thanks of the author are due 
to Mj. C. G. Malmatrom, Keeper of the State Archivea at Stockhobn, and 
to Mj. C. H. de Lagerheim and Mr. M. de Bjtimatjema of the Swedish 



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16 SOURCES OF INFORMATION. 

hitherto been published, amongst which must be men- 
tioned a letter or commission issued by Qustavus 
Adolphus II.* to Sir James Spens of Wormiaton, a 
Scottish officer of high rank, found sometimes in the 
service of James I., sometimes in that of Sweden. 

That commission is of more especial value, since it 
explains the connection between the expedition of 
Monnichhofen and that of the Scots. 

The former enterprise — an important part of the 
famed Skottetog — is not the subject of any Nor- 
wegian Sagas, or of any popular ballads, but Scandi- 
navian historians have dealt with it somewhat more 
correctly than with the Scottish expedition, probably 
because the Dutch contingent reached Sweden, and 
thereby supplied living testimony as to the circum- 
stances that attended its march through Stordalen 
into Jemtland. 

Nevertheless, the first documents relating to that 
daring exploit were not published before 1858, in a 
Norwegian historical magazine. These were copies of 
letters from Steen Bilde, amtmand, or prefect ; Chris- 



ForeigD Office, for their rasearchea and friendly co-operAtion. Hia acknow- 
ledgmente are ftleo duo to Joseph Auderson, LL.D., Keeper of the NaUonal 
MuBetuu, Edinbur^. 

* November 16, 1611, for the levying of auxiliarr troops in Scotland. 
'Sat oopy. Bee p. 173. 



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SOURCES OF INFOBMATION. 17 

tian Jensson Jnde, bui^maater ; and Jacob Pederson, 
lagioand,* all of Trondhjem — addressed to the Dan- 
ish Chejicellor, and dated severally between the 15th 
August 1612 and the 19th February 1613. 

Some years later — namely, in 1877 — Dr. Yngvar 
Nielsen of Christiania published f " Some Notices 
respecting Johan von Monnichhofen," derived from a 
series of letters from Swedish agents at Amsterdam 
whidi he foimd in the State Archives at Stockhohn. 

* A jadidal officer attached to a tribunal aa a kind of witness of ita 



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THE CALMAR WAR, AND SWEDISH MEASURES FOR 
RAISING MERCENARIES. 

Such being the documents and the information at last 
avulable in the matter of the Monnichhof en and Scottish 
expeditions of 1612, it is time to narrate briefly why 
auxiliary troops were at that time wanted in Sweden. 

When Gustavos Adolphns, on the 26th December 
1611, took into his own hands, at the age of seventeen, 
the government of Sweden, his first step was to seek 
the conclusion of peace with Denmark ; and with that 
object he formally surrendered the title of TCing of the 
Lapps, the assumption of which by his father had caused 
so much ill blood between Christian IV. and Charles IX 
that it became one of the principal causes of the so- 
called Calmar War, commenced in the spring of 1611. 

The overtures of Sweden and the offered mediation 
of Great Britain and other powers were rejected by 
Denmark, and the war was thereupon continued with 



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THE CALMAR WAR. 19 

great vigour, but with varying success on either side. 
However, in the early summer of 1612 the Danes 
took the important fortresses of Elfsborg and GuU- 
berg, and having the entire command of the Cattegat 
and the Belts, cut off Sweden from the sea. Later, 
the Danish tieet anchored inside the rocks at Stock- 
holm, of which the seizure was averted only by the 
bold strategy of Gustavus Adolphus. 

This abortive attempt on the capital of Sweden 
practically concluded the war. Peace was ultimately 
signed at Knarod, in Halland, January 18, 1613.* 

During that war the Danish monarch had in his 

service about eighteen thousand English,f French, and 

German mercenaries; while Gustavus Adolphus, having 

on his side* only one foreign regiment of eight or 

* In that treaty of peace, King James I. of England, whose ambassa- 
dor had assisted at its n^otiatioD, was described as "a friendly broker 
and negotJator "—a phrase which, slightly varied, Prince Bismarck ap- 
plied to himself at the Iste Congress of Berlin. King Jamea I. is men' 
tioned as "the general peace-broker of Europe," (John's "Hiatory of 
theCalmar War."] The king himself aspired to be called " Rax Pacifi- 

t ' ' His M, doth holds that their are not a thousand strong fighting 
men of loglysh soiours heere ; and doeth wonder of my Ixjrd WiUowbeis 
staying." — Sir R, Anstrnthec to King Jaraes I., from the "Camp at 
Golbe^," July .-5, 1612. 

X The alien otGcers were General Rutherford and Lieutenant Laar- 
month. Captain Wauchope, and Greig, who commanded the artillery — 
all Scotsman ; also General Diie, Caspar Matzen, and M6nnichhofen. 
(Deposition of Andrew Ramsay and Robert Douglas, Copenhagen, 
December IS, IGll.) In 1613 MSnnichhoien and Rutherford were em- 
ployed with Swedish b^xips in Russia. (Cronholm's "History of Sweden. ") 



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so THS CALMAR WAR. 

oine compaDies, soon fotmd himself "in need of foreign 
soldiers as well, wherewith to check the attacks of the 
enemy."* Charles IX, had indeed foreseen such a 
necessity, but no action was apparently taken in that 
direction until the month of November 1611, when 
Qnstavus Adolphus addressed to Sir James Spens the 
letter or commission already mentioned, and when 
also the Queen Dowa^r of Sweden issued an order -f- 
for the payment of 10,500 rigsdaller out of a fund at 
Liibeck to Monnichhofen, then preparing to proceed 
to the Netherlands for the enlistment of men, who, 
according to the letter addressed to Sir James Spens, 
were to have joined the Scottish auxiliary contingent 
at Elfsborg. On the 2nd December 1611 Monnich- 
hofen J was appointed commander-in-chief of the 
Swedish shipa-of-war with which he was to have 
sailed from Elfsborg and brought back his levies. 

* GiiBtavDS AdolphuB to Sir James Spena, November 16, Kill. 

+ November 26, 1611. 

X Johaun von Mtinnichbofen was an officer of high rank in the S.wedish 
service. In the documents preserved in Uie Swedish State Archives he is 
indiSerentlf styled "Quartermaster-General and Chief" and "Chief 
QuartemiasteT." Together with the other foreign officers in the pay of 
Sweden, he was at the si^e of Calmu', at which they were all, with 
the solitary eiception of himself, wounded. A Scottish officer deponed 
at Copenhagen that Monniohliofen had alone escaped on that oocaaum 
"because he surpassed the others in prudence, and knew how to fight 
from a distance. " This disparaging observation ma; be due to jealousy 
on the part of his Scottish brethren in aims, for he certainly showed Rreat 
daring in plamiing and executing suoceBsfnlly hifl march through Norway. 



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THE CALMAR WAR. 21 

Money being apparently scarce, orders were given 
that he should be supplied with a certain quantity of 
oz'hides, for sale on his arrival in Holland, to meet 
the further expenses of his expedition. Bnt the 
original plan of fetching and transporting the Nether- 
lands levies in Swedish ships-of-war was ultimately 
abandoned, and Mdnnichhofen reached Holland by 
another route. 

The letters discovered at Stockholm by Dr. Tngvar 
Nielsen prove that Monnichhofen had by the 1st June 
1612 embarked a force of about twelve hundred men 
at Amsterdam on board four ships, which were de- 
tained for five weeks by contrary winds. Monnich- 
hofen had, therefore, the Swedish agent writes, in- 
curred " extraordinary expenses, to the extent of at 
least fonr thousand thalers, in providing the men in 
the small ships with food and drink, and had conse- 
quently to pledge and mortgage all he possessed." He 
had "also encountered much difficulty and incurred 
great expense in keeping his men together even 
before the ships lay wind-bound." 

Although in most Danish and Swedish histories the 
troops enlisted by Mdnnichhofen in Holland are stated 
to have been Scottish, there is no documentary proof of 
such having been their nationality. The Netherlands 



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U TBE CALMAR WAR. 

were at the time full of foreign auziliaiy troops, the 
republic having, on the signature of the truce of 17th 
June 1609, retained in its service 6,000 French, 3,000 
English, and 3,000 Germans, but only 2,000 Scots. 
The absence of all mention of Scottish officers being 
with Monnichhofen ; the rivalry that e^sted between 
the military adventurers of that period ; the circum- 
stance that General Halkett,* a Scottish officer, was in 
Amsterdam at about the same period, engaged, not in 
enlisting Scots, but in hiring a ship to transport levies 
from Scotland ; and more especially the fact that 
Monnichhofen had been instructed to procure arms for 
the men simultaneously levied in Scotland ; — all this 
leads us to infer that Monnichhofen, himself a Fleming, 
enlisted Hollanders, and perhaps Germajis. 

* Called ID Bome docmnents " Colonel " and " Lieut. -ColoneL" 



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SUCCESSFUL MARCH OF MONNICHHOFEN THROUGH 
NORWAY. 

AccoRDiHQ to the Report of the same Swedish agent, 
Motmichhofen sailed at last on the llth July from 
Amsterdam,* and landed five days later in StordaJen, 
on the coast of Norway — at that time united with the 
Crown of Denmark — without combining, as originally 
intended, with the levies made in Scotland, although 
measures for their detention were taken only on the 
4th August following. 

The ships (evidently Dutch) which had transported 
his troops to Norway returned safely to Amsterdam 
with the information that Monnichhofen had disem- 
barked "three or four miles above Trondhjem, in 
Moersdall," and that his men had landed in such an 
ill-conditioned state that they " could not reach Sweden 
without great difficulty and danger." 

* Stoen Bilde reported that UonniGbhofeii's shipa bad soiled from 



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84 MARCH OF MOSlflCBBOFEN. 

When read in connection with the Reports of the 
Swedish agents at Amsterdam, first discovered and 
made known by Dr. Tngvar Nielsen in 1877, the 
letters of Steen Bilde, C. J, Jude, and J. Pederson * 
afford a credible and fairly complete account of that 
expedition. Those collective documents show that • 
it waa not composed, as alleged by Niels Slange, of 
" about fourteen hundred soldiers, or Scots," enlisted 
in Scotland, but nominally of twelve hundred men 
raised in the Netherlands under the circumstances 
already described. 

The burgomaster of Trondhjem (who, like Bilde 
and the other Danish officials, was interested in over- 
rating rather than in under-rating the strength of the 
invaders,) reported, on 15th August 1612, that the 
expedition consisted of " eight hundred soldiers, be- 
sides their women and boys ;" and according to Cron- 
holm,f Gustavus Adolphiis himself wrote that the 
number of those men, when they lurived in Jemtland, 
out of all further danger, amounted to eight hundred.| 
The four small Dutch ships could scarcely have carried 
more, especially if the men were accompanied by 

* Published ftbout 1868. 

t "3verigeB Hiatoru nnder Qustav II Adolph's Ragenns-" Stock- 
holm. Part I., p. 17B. 

]: In his letter to Sii J. Speiu, GurtAvna Adolphus apeaka only of one 
thousand infantry to be laiaed by MonnichliofeD. 



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MARCH OF MONSICHHOFElf. 26 

their women and children, as alleged by the burgo- 



The Swedish and Danish historians relate that 
Mdnnichhofen took hia men to Scotland, and sailed 
fi-om thence, in command of a combined force, for the 
coast of Norway ; but all these statements only serve 
to prove yet more conclusively that the true history 
of the foreign levies made for Sweden in 1CI2 has 
until quite recently lain hidden in State Archives. 

Mdnnichhofen sailed From Amsterdam on the 14th 
July 1G12, and having landed in Norway on the 19th 
July, could not possibly have carried out the original 
plan of joining his levies with those made in Scotland. 
Besides, the documents now brought to light prove 
that the small portion of the intended Scottish con- 
tingent that escaped the vigilance of the Scottish 
Council of State did not sail for Norway until the 
2nd of August. 

According to the Reports of the Trondhjem officials 
above mentioned, Mdnnichhofen seized two other ships 
off Giske (which place he plundered), put some of his 
soldiers on board, (uid compelled the Norwegian ves- 
sels to pilot his own fleet of four ships into Trondhjem 
roads. In order to prevent the enemy from entering 
the river, Steen Bilde removed the poles and buoys 



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26 aiARCH OP MOHt/tCBBOFES. 

that marked the channel, brought six iron cannon 
down to the aea-ahore, and hastily made many other 
arrangements for repelling an anticipated attack on 
the city. As it grew dark soon after the ahips had 
anchored, the fire opened upon them from the shore 
was harmless; and at daybreak they set sail again, 
after firing a few shots in return. 

The wind being favourable, they soon rounded a 
point on which stood a farm called Viig, where the 
soldiers were quickly disembarked and marched to* 
wards Meragerfjeld, four or five Norwegian (twenty- 
eight to thirty-five English) miles distant. 

They reached the summit of the fjeld without 
much molestation from the three military officers in 
command of the " frontier guard " of about two hun- 
dred soldiers or militia, reinforced by three hundred 
mounted Bonder, Steen Bilde and the three officers 
had collected a considerable number of peasants (the 
burgomaster says fifteen hundred) to repel the inva- 
sion ; but according to the prefect, when a part of 
those levies reached the enemy, the captain of the 
frontier guard "could not get them forward where 
they were wanted." The enemy kept them off with 
their muskets, which the peasants mistook for cannon, 
probably because they were fired from rests, while 



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MARCH OF MONNICHHOFEN. 27 

their own firearms they considered to be relatively 
" pop-guns " (Snap-hosaer). 

Moreover, provisions were unobtainable, as the local 
Bonder had fled on the approach of the troops, after 
hiding their scanty supplies of food in the woods. A 
panic ensued, the common people insisting that the 
invaders were " very strong, and picked soldiers and 
warriors." 

Steen Bilde was subsequently tried and punished 
for his alleged remissness in not repelling the enemy, 
and therefore some caution is necessary in receiving 
the official complaints made by the burgomaster and 
lagraand agEiinst the peasantry on that occasion, and 
which were to the following effect : " How can we 
carry on war in thii country with peasants ? It suf- 
fices to see how they conducted themselves against the 
soldiers." Steen Bilde affirmed that the lagmand had 
to " ride and walk about the whole of the night to get 
those peasants and ill-disposed persons into order; 
and yet nothing can be accomplished with them, as 
they do not stand, but run away at once when they 
see the enemy." He ui^ed in his own defence : " I 
did my best, diligently, according to the counsel and 
means at hand, and according to what could be ac- 
complished with those peasants. God comfort those 



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88 MARCH OF MoysicBHorsir. 

who have no other help than peasants on such an 



It would appear at this distance of time that both 
Steen Bilde and the peasants were unfairly reproached 
for their conduct. The sudden landing of so many 
armed men was quite sufiGcient to create a panic, 
while the burning of " four farms in Stordalen, and of 
all the farms (twelve in all) which lay towards the 
river at Merger," was well calculated to strike terror 
into and to paralyze a pea4»ful population.* Under 
such circumstances, it would have been diflScult to 
drive the men back to their ships, even with the 
fifteen hundred peasants hastily collected, under the 
command of three captains, and supported only by 
two hundred soldiers or militia. 

Monnichhofen's troops appear to have had the 
same difficulty as the peasant levies in providing 
themselves with food ; for the men sent by Steen Bilde 
into the mountains as scouts found some of the sol- 
diers dead from hunger, and many pieces of armour as 
well as pikes and other weapons thrown away by them. 

On the other hand, Cronholm f asserts that the 

■ p. H. Jahn, the DiiniBli historian of the C&lm&r War, saya the 
Bonder were bo Etricken with fear that they allawed the transport BhipB, 
which they might have taken, to sail back. 

t " Sveriges Historia under Gustsv II Adolph's K^ering." 



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MARCH OF MONSICHHOFEN. 29 

progress of the troops, which, laden with booty, were 
driving before them the cattle robbed from farms, was 
arrested ia numerous mountain passes, where the 
soldiers were slaughtered by a host of peasants. But 
this statement is not in harmony with the Official 
Beporta made to the Danish Chancellor, or with the 
punishment inflicted on Steen Bilde, The latter 
pointed out, on the contrary, that if some armed bands 
of peasants had understood how to utilize the advan- 
tages afforded by the physical conditions of the high- 
lands, the rocks and precipices over which the bold 
Monnichhofen and his men made their way " might 
easily have become their graves," 

However, it is on historical record that the expe- 
dition reached Jemtland, where it found itself on 
Swedish soil, the population having previously taken 
an oath of allegiance to the Swedish Crown, which at 
the end of the war acquired permanently that Danish 
province. 

Gustavus Adolpbus occupied- Heijedalen and Jemt- 
land in pursuance of a threat made (March 1612) 
in a proclamation to the Norwegian peasantry, who 
yet spumed the idea of seceding from Denmark, and 
had attacked in force the lands on the Swedish bor- 
ders, when, according to a contemporaneous writer, 
3 

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MARCH OF MONSICHHOFEN. 31 

uichhofeu towards the old Swedish provinces was thus 
rendered easy ; and on receipt of orders from Gustavus 
Adolphus, be took the direct road to Stockholm, then 
seriously threatened by the fleet of Christian IV. 

Gustavu,^ led in person the Netherlands contingent 
to Waxholm, a few miles from Stockholm, in order to 
attack the Danes, and in a month or so the Calmar 
War came to an end. 



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OEOAKIZATION OP SCOTTISH LEVIES FOR SWEDBN, 
AND THEIR FORCED DISBANDMENT. 

Having dealt with that part of the general plan of 
hringing foreign troops to the aid of Sweden which 
was 80 succesafully carried out by Monnichbofen, we 
approach the main subject of this little work — namely, 
the history of the Scottish levies, and of the disaster 
that befell the very small portion of them that suc- 
ceeded in leaving Scotland and landing in Norway. 

Our starting-point in this part of the inquiry must 
be the commission addressed by Gustavus Adolphus 
to Sir James Spens, Laird of Wormiston,* 

* Sir Junee Spens waa the son of " Spens of Wormiston," who made 
Lennoi, the regent of Scotland, captdve tt the seizure of Stirling by the 
forces of Kirksld]' in 1671, and who ms slain at the same time while pro- 
tecting his prisoner. The personage in queeUon, so high in the favour of 
Guatavua Adolphua, was a prominent type of the Scottish adventurer of 
that age. He went to Sweden in 1610 as envoy from King James I., 
there being at the time a question of betrothing Gustavus Adolphus, then 
Crown Prinoe, to an English princess — namely, to Elizabeth, the daughter 
of James L, married subsequently to Frederick, the Elector Palatine of 



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OROANIZATtON OF SCOTTISH LEVIES. 33 

It gives an authentic indication of the measures 
subsequently adopted for obtaining levies in Scotland 
6B well as in Holland. The young warrior and states- 
man refers to promises made by Sir James Spens to 
Charles IX., and to the services which his father had 
required of him, urging him to hasten his return (evi- 
dently from Scotland) with the " promised three thou- 
sand soldiers of proved faithfulness and bravery." 
He wished them to be infantry, not cavalry. The 
main object was the arrival of Sir James Spens at 
Elfsborg, by the Ist of April 1612, " with the before- 
mentioned number of tnaops, properly equipped with 
the needful accoutrements." Spens was to be paid 
at Hamburg the sum of 20,000 imperials, and was 
assured that any further expense he might incur in 
the matter of the levies would be repaid to him 
punctually and with the greatest cheerfulness. Qus- 

tbe German Empira. Wo find him later in Denmiirlt, offering the medi- 
■tkm of Kng^and between Chriatian IV. and C!harle8 IX. On this occa- 
■ion he was bo nngracioualy received at Cnpenhagen that he narrowly 
escaped with hii life. Sir James Spena entered the Swedish military 
service, from which, however, he was recalled by King James, who, a 
abort time after, sent him back to Stockholm as ambassador, in which 
character he invested Oustavus Adulphus with the Order of the OarteT, 
and took part in the negotjations that remilted in the Peace of Knarijd. 
On one occasion he went to England as ambassador from the Swedish 
CSourt. In 1622 he wee created Baron Spens of Orreholmen, in Vester- 
gotland. He died at Stockhohn in 1632, after having been made, in ~ ~ 



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34 ORBASIZATION OF SCOTTISH LEVIES, 

tarus Adolphus added : " Furthermore, we have 
thoTight (right) that it should be notified to you that 
we have arranged with our general {dvAX), our truly- 
beloved Johannes Mcenichovius, that he is to transport 
his thousand infantry, fully fumidied with necessary 
arms, from Holland to Elfsborg, in the beginning of 
spring. If, therefore, you combine your fleet and 
army with the ships of the aforesaid Mcenichovius, 
we shall be extremely glad." 

The execution of this part of the plan was subse- 
quently rendered impossible by the fall of Elfsbo^ 
and the command which the Danes obtained of the 
aj^toaches to Sweden by sea. 

The proceedings of Spens in this matter are not 
disclosed in the documents so far discovered,* which 
prove that Colonel Andrew Ramsay was the active 
organizer of the levies in Scotland. King James I. 
in one of his letters calls him " the chief of the busi- 
ness, whose brother all men know what place he hath 
with us." The influence Andrew Ramsay possessed 

* It appeon from the correspondence of Sir Robert Anetruther that 
the "Lord of Wormiaton" Undod at Elsinore on the 4th June 1612, 
having been sent simuItaneouBly with Sir Gobert Anstruther to arrange 
a peace between Denmark and Sweden, The Danish Chancellor was 
induced to grant him a safe-conduct into Sweden ; " whereupon a nvm- 
ber bath wondred and thinks he shall haue small thanlc for hia pania." 
F. H. Jahn, the Danish historian of the Calmar War, asserts that Spena 
was "secretly supported in his recruiting boainees." 



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AND THEIR FORCED DISRASDMEST. 35 

at the Court of King James probably caused him to 
be eng^ed by Spans, One of hia brothers was Sir 
John Ramsay, a favourite of King James, and who, 
while one of the royal pages, in the year 1600, was 
instrumental in rescuing the king from assassination 
at Gowrie House, near Perth. It was another brother 
of his — Alexander Eamsay — who was the leader of 
the small detachment of Scots destroyed at Kringelen, 
in Norway, and not George Sinclair, as hitherto 
assumed. 

That the king's name was privately but unjustifi- 
ably used in the proceedings of Colonel Andrew 
Eamsay, was subsequently acknowledged by the 
latter, and hence the suspicion arose in Denmark that 
King James was cognizant of those proceedings. But 
the documents preserved in Edinbui^h show that 
Ring James did not become aware of what Andrew 
Eamsay and the officers with him were doing in 
Scotland until about the Slst July 1612, the date 
on which the king wrote to his Scottish Privy Council 
as follows: — 

" Whereas it is said there is a colonel and certain 
captains levying men there to go to Sweden, we wonder 
that any subject of ours dare presume in that kind to 
serve any foreign prince, not only without our licence 



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36 OSOAtriZATlON OF SCOTTISH LEVIES, 

but directly against our meamag and special promise 

made to our deai brother the King of Denmark.* 

It is therefore our pleasure that ye certify as to what 
that levying of soldiers meaneth; by what authority it 
is done; and that ye make stay of all proceedings 
therein till ye shall be advertised of our further 
pleasure concerning that matter." 

Nine days later, the king wrote to his envoy at 
Cc^nhagen'f' that he had heard, "by mere accident, 
of levies in Scotland ready to embark under Kamsay, 
Steward, and some other capt^ns ;" and " being dis- 
pleased, gave order presently for the stay of the levy. 
And whereas good numbers of them were already em- 
barked before His Majesty heard the news, or ready 
to embark. His Highness hath given order to discharge 

* Wlien as yet onl; Kiiyf of Scotliind, Jamea was married (November 24, 
1589) at Oslo, now a suburb of Chrieti&ma, to Anne, aiater of Christian IV. 
of Denuiark. She bad previously gone through the caremnny of marriage 
wiQi Earl-Uarshal Keith, aa proxy for the king, at the ca»tle of Cronen- 
berg ) bat on tliMr way to Scotland the Danish ships, driven by etorma to 
the coast of Norway, landed the princesa at Oslo, With great gallantry 
King James cune over to fetch her with a large fleet, and remained 
at Oslo, after hia loarri^e there (performed by Robert Bruce, court 
chaplain), until the 21at January 15M), when he sailed with his bride for 
Copenhagen. The ties of relatiaoship, and the duties and obligations of 
King Jamee towards his "good brother" the King of Denmark, are fully 
recognized in the documents now published ; but tiie impartial historian 
cannut fail to take into consideration the character of that sovereign and 
his conduct in other matter?, such ae the negotiaUons with Spain and the 
family interests connected with them. 

f King's Secretary to Sir Robert Anstruther, »th August 1612. 



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AND THEIR FORCED DtSBASDMENT. 37 

them, and doth utterly disavow any acts of theirs," 
etc. 

But the Danish king was already well acquainted 
with those proceedings ; for the British envoy at Cop- 
enhagen wrote to King James on the 10th August 
1612 (the king had written to him on the 9th August) 
that the King of Denmark was informed that " one 
Menigowe, a Fleming, having in company with him 
fifteen hundred men, is to meet with Andrew Ramsay 
in some part of the north of Scotland, about Caithness 
or Orkney, who has more than a thousand Scottish 
men with him ; and so they mind to join their forces 
together, and to fall upon Norway and spoil some 
towns, and so go into Sweden," The King of Den- 
mark, added the envoy, had been informed by persons 
from Scotland that Bamsay had levied men about 
Edinburgh and embarked them at Leith ; and His 
Majesty argued that " such levies so near Edinburgh 
could not be done without permission of the Stata" 

Indeed, the excuses of the Scottish Privy Council, 
to the effect that the levies had been made secretly, 
did not satisfy even King James, who wrote to his 
envoy that, to quote his own expression, he " raisliked 
some dulness of theirs." 

The action taken by the Scottish Privy Council 



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38 OBOAytJlA TIOS OF SCOTTISH LEVIES, 

immediately oa receipt of the peremptory orders of 
the king was as follows : — 

On the 4th Angost 1612 a proclamation was isaned 
" dischai^Dg the transporting of soldiers to Sweden," 
and another "against the soldiers enlisted for Sweden;" 
while two acts were passed — the one " charging " or 
accusing " Captuns Hay, Ker, and Sinclair " of having 
enlisted men for the wars of Sweden, and ordering 
them to desist from their enterprise, etc.; the other 
summoning Colonel Andrew Bamsay to appear before 
the Council to " hear and see Hi^ Majesty's will, 
pleasure, and direction " in respect of the men of war 
enlisted under his pay and command to be transported 
to Sweden. Next day the Lords of the Council 
ordered officers of arms " to pass, command, and charge 
the masters, owners, skippetB, and mariners of ships 
and vessels freighted for transport of soldiers to 
Sweden, that they bring in their ships to the harbour 
of Leith, and there suffer them to lie," and not to set 
sail until they know the Council's will and pleasure 
towards them, under pain of being denounced as 
rebels and " put to the horn." • 

On the 15 th August an act was passed by the 

* The latter threat loeant, ia Scottieh l&nr, > decloratioii of outl&wiy, 
after throe blasta of a horn, and the putting up of a dtaticni at the quay, 
[Her, or shore in LMlfa, or at the market croes in Edinburgh. 



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AND THEIR FORCED DISBANDMEST. 39 

Coumul, ordering that " the companies o£ men lately 
enlisted under the chaise and commandment of Colonel 
Kamsay and some other captains, for the wars of 
Sweden, be broken up, and that they shall in no wIto 
be transported to Sweden ; " and on the same day an- 
other act, ordaining that the companiea imder Colonel 
Ramsay, who had meanwhile professed his willingness 
to render obedience to the king by disbanding them, 
should be landed, one half at Leith, the other half at 
Brunt or Burnt Island, on the other side of the Forth. 

The latest document regarding these matters, ob- 
tained from the General Register Office in Edinbuigh, 
is dated the ISth September 1612. Colonel Andrew 
Ramsay had been summoned to appear before the 
Council on the latter date, to answer r^arding the 
unlawful levying of troops ; and having failed to do 
so, he was forthwith denounced as a rebel. 

Those acts and proclamations * give a very inter- 
eating and, indeed, important insight into the methods 
Colonel Andrew Ramsay and his confederates had 
adopted in Scotland. 

We first of all find that Sir RobeH Ker had ap- 
prehended in the middle shiresf of Scotland a number 

■ Tide text in Appendix. 

i' The Border counties of Scotland were ordered to be called the middle 
shires on (he nnion of the tii'o kingdoms. 



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40 OROASIZATION OF SCOTTISH LEVIES, 

of malefactors, part of whom he sent, or rather in- 
tended to send, to Sweden. In the second place, tJie 
proclamations assert that the Scottish officers therein 
named "have ^aolently pressed and taken a great 
many honest men's sons, and have carried them to 
their ships against their will, of purpose to transport 
them to Sweden." They are accused of going " about 
the country in a swa^ering manner, awaiting the 
time and occasion how and where they may appre- 
hend any persons travelling on their lawful adois,* 
and if they be masters of them they immediately 
lay hands on them and by force and violence 
convey them to the next shore, where they have 
their boats in readiness to tate them on hoard of 

their ships So that there is SDch a fear and dread 

arising among the common people that none of them 
dare travel," unless they be " able to withstand and 

resist tiie violence and injury of the said persons." 

" And divers young fellows," continues the proclama- 
tion, " who were resolved to have come to these parts 
to have awaited upon the harvest and cutting down 
of the com are," for those reasons, " afraid to come 
here." In the charge against Captains Hay, Ker, and 
Sinclair, it is allied that the " honest men's bairns 

* Plural of ado, buBineSB. 



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AND THEIR FORCED DISBANDMEITT. 41 

and servants " are detajned on board the ships " as 
slaves and captives." 

Any person disobeying the orders of the Council 
was threatened with the penalty of death. The 
levies were to be discontinued, the ships seized, their 
sails taken from the yards, and the men on board set 
at liberty; but not before the local authorities had 
visited the vessels, and taken out of them and 
delivered over to the bailies of Edinburgh " the per- 
sons who had been delivered to them by the Com- 
missioners of the late Borders," as well as the persons 
whom Colonel Bamsay and his captains had received 
out of the tolbooths of Kdinbui^h and Dunbar. 

The remainder of the companies were ordered to 
be landed, as already said, at Leith and Burntisland, 
but on condition that the men should not remain 
together or travel back in groups of more than two 
after their disembarkation, under penalty of death, 
to obviate the possibility of their committing acts of 
violence on passing through the country. 

The remarkable fact that, in all these stringent 
and detailed regulations for the disbanding and land- 
ing of so many men, no mention whatever is made 
of the most ordinary military precaution of disarm- 
ing them will be noticed in a succeeding diapter. 



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ORDERS OF KINQ JAMES I. DISOBEYED BT A FEW 
SCOTTISH OFFICERS, WHO PROCEED WITH A SMALL 
PORTION OF THE LEVIES TO NORWAY. 

The vigorous measures o£ the Council were not, how- 
ever, adopted ia sufficient time to prevent a small 
ctmtingent of the Scottish levies from crossing over 
to Norway. 

On the 1 7th Septemher 1612, the Norwegian 
Stadtholder Kruse announced to the Danish Chancel- 
lor the arrival of two Scottish ships at Romsdalen 
between the 19th and 20th August, and the destmc- 
tion at Kringelen, on the 26th August, of all the 
men, except eighteen, that had landed from those 
vessels. 

On the 26th October 1612, Sir Eobert Anstruther 
reported the matter in the following terms to King 
James : — 



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THE SCOTTISH EXPEDITION. 43 

" Doubtless your M"* hath heard of that unfortu- 
nate accident, that happened unto 300 of your M*" 
subjects, which landed in Norroway under the con- 
duct of Alexander Itamsay, Lieutenant-Colonel unto 
Colonel Ramsay, Captain Hay, and Captain Sinclair. 
After they had inarched six days within the country, 
pressing to go through to Sweden, (they) were over- 
charged by the inhabitants of the country, and all 
killed, except some few, of which the said Lieutenant 
Ramsay,* and Captain Bruce,-f- James Moneypenny,{ 
and James Scott,§ these four, were sent to Denmark. 
After their coming hitiier a Council of War was 
called, to have examined them, and afterwards to 
have given judgment upon them. After I had spoken 
with them, and found that their journey was enter- 
prysed (undertaken) rashly, and rather simple than 
weU advised, for not one of them had any kind of 
commission or warrant to show, neither from the 
late King Charles, neither from Gustavua, neither 

* In I{nvold Knue'a first Report to Copenhngen he ii styled Captain 
Ramwy. 

i- Called in Sir R. Anstruther'B letter to Sir Junea Spens (26Ui Sep- 
tember 1612) "good Sir Henry Bruce." (See p. 177-) In Kruse's first 
Report he ia stated to have served as a soldier in Holland, Spain, and 

X Id the same lUport Moneypenny is called Lieutenant to Ramsay, and 
mentioned as having been " used as an interpreter " in this expedition. 
He had previously been in Denmark and Sweden. 

{ Not menUoned in Kruse's Report. 



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44 THE SCOTTISH EXPEDITION. 

from Colonel Ramsay ; wherein first they would have 
heen condemned of great simplicity or ignorance : and 
next found to be plain invaders, and ravers of the 
king's dominions and subjects, and a severe judgment 
would have followed. In regard the king was much 
discontented, for eviting of this public censure and 
danger, I thought good to labour to have them 
privily examined in the presence only of the Chan- 
cellor and Bredo Kantzow, where I was myself (un- 
worthy) present. Their deposition is sent with them- 
selves unto your M*"*" hoping it shall be far better for 
them to come into the hands of your Royal M*'*' who 
ever had used grace and clemency unto those that 
offend of simplicity, not of wilfulness." 

In a letter of the same date to the king's secretary, 
the envoy stated that the 300 Scots had all been 
" killed and murdered," except some few. 

The deposition in question of Alexander Ramsay, 
made in Latin, was to the following effect : — 

He had been appointed to the post of Lieutenant- 
Colonel by Andrew Ramsay, who, on his part, had 
declared that he had been appointed to the office of 
Colonel by a letter from Charles, King of Sweden. 
Andrew Ramsay had told him that the levying of 
men in Scotland had been carried on with the know- 



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THE SCOTTISH EXPEDITION. 46 

ledge and approval of His Majesty of Great Britain — 
" that an agreement had been made between himself 
and two others : George Sinclair and George Hay, 
each being in command of a hundred infantry."* He, 
Alexander Ramsay, " had embarked at Dundee : but 
the two aforesaid captains had set sail from Caith- 
ness." " They had crossed tbe sea relying on the 
words and promises of Andrew Ramsay ; and the 
Council of the Kingdom of Scotland was unac- 
quainted with those matters." " A stopping-place," 
he further deponed, " had been fixed upon beforehand, 
off Shetland, where Monnichhofen with a thousand 
soldiers and 3,000 arms and General Halkett"!- of Scot- 
land with a thousand infantry, were to meet, the 
number increasing to 3,000." Lastly, that they had 
set sail from that place on the second day of August, 
James Nisbet of Edinburgh having " taken upon 

* There ia no menUon of the "part of hie company" which William 
Stuart, in his deaire to obtajn favoura at Stockholm id 1613, alleged he 
had sent to Norway. (Sea p. 178.) 

f According to the depoaitian of Alexander Ramaay, GoDeral Holkett, 
who woe to have nused one thousand men in Scotland for the joint expe- 
dition, had been at Amsterdam aome time in the month of Auguat, and 
had hired a ahip to sail to Edinburgh, in order, aa he gave out, " to take 
to Sweden the men whom Spena waa to have cauaed to be eugsged in 
Scotland." The Swedish agent, " who reported this on the 24th August, 
thought it, however, little probable that auch an expedition would auc- 
ceed BO late in the season, especially as the men wert not armed, while in 
Norway the peo^e were everywhere in arma." — Letter from the Swedish 
agent at Amsterdam to Johann Skytte, discovered by Dr. Yngvar Nielsen. 



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46 THE SCOTTISH EXPEDITION. 

himself the risk which the ship " (in the singular — 
probably Bamsay's) " might incur," fuid that the Nor- 
wegian peasants showed them the way " when they 
had landed at Bomsdal in lisfiord." 

Alexander Ramsay and his three companions were 
" sent home to their country," King James finding 
them " no otherwise in fault than as abused by Bam- 
say." This Colonel Andrew Bamsay, aiter being a 
fugitive in Scotland, was apprehended in England on 
the occasion of his seeking a quarrel (or duel) with 
Sir Bobert Carr of Aucram,* whom he accused of 
having divulged to the king his " gathering of men 
in Scotland." 

On being examined, on the 27th November 1612, 
in the presence of the Duke of Lennox and Viscount 
Fenton, he confessed that he had a commission from 
the King of Sweden for levying men, and that he 
had undertaken and gone about to levy men in Scot- 
land out of ignorance, not knowing but that he might 
lawfully " take such as would go." For his fault, he 
submitted himself to His Majesty's mercy, " as (dso 
for using the king's name to induce others, which he 
confesseth he did, and promised them to stand between 



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THE SCOTTISH EXPEDITION. 47 

them and any danger." At the same time, he denied 
ever having had " any leave, oversight, or connivance 
directly or indirectly from the king, either by him- 
self, or by means or signification of any other body," 
Nor had he acquainted any member of the king's 
Council of Scotland with his doings, or " received 
any encouragement from them or any else." 

This deposition was transmitted to Denmark, King 
James ordering Sir Robert Anstruther to say that 
Andrew Ramsay's " fault being of that nature as doth 
not forfeit life or limb, and the custom of declar- 
ing Schellum "* (which the King of Denmark had 
evidently suggested as a punishment for the breach 
of his parole not to serve Sweden) " being not with 
ns in use, we have by our warrant under our hand 
banished him out of all our dominions ; which next 
unto death is the highest punishment we could 
inflict." 

Having thus disposed of the history of the Scottish 
levies, we proceed to inquire into the fate of the small 
detachment that landed in Norway under the com- 
mand of Alexander Bamsay. 

• Ri^ne or v«gaboad (?). 



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THE LANDINQ OF ALEXANDER BAHSAT IN R0H3DALEN. 

The Scots disembarked at a place since named Skot- 
hammer, or Skotkleven (the Scots* Cliflf), in the 
vicinity of Klognses farm, in a part of the Boms- 
dal fiord called the Iis6ord, some miles from the 
present hamlet of VeblungsnEes, which was not then 
in existence. The Sagas of Gudhrandsdal, collected 
by Dean En^, begin with a stirring account of the 
patriotism of Peder Klogmea or Klungmes, the occu- 
pant of the farm of that name, who is popularly 
supposed to have prevented the two Scottish vessels 
from proceeding higher up the fiord, by representing 
that there was not sufficient water for them. He is 
therefore credited with the skilful deception of having 
induced the Scots to march two Norwegian miles 
(about fourteen English miles) out of their way, round 
the lisfiord, over mountains and marshes, and through 



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LAlTDISa OF ALEXANDER BAMSAY. 49 

roadless forests intersected by alniost impassable 
streams ; all which delayed their pic^ess, and en- 
abled Feder to send a messa^ to the authorities and 
to the Bonder, to save their goods in advance of the 
troops.* 

It is more likely that the real reason for landing 
at Skotkleven was the desire of the shipmasters to 
get back to sea as quickly as possible, and not further 
endanger their safety by entering into a narrower 
and more remote part of the fiord. 

It is scarcely necessary to follow and criticise the 
remainder of the Sagas, such as the meeting of Sin- 
clair with the old woman (transformed by Eklvard 
Storm into a mermaid), who predicted he " would 
come to bite the dust when he met the hardy men of 
the glen," and the romantic story of Oun, the maiden 
who made signals to the Eonder, and played a plain- 

* No mentioD is made of Peder Klognsa in the Hepoita mode b; Envold 
KniBs, who merely sa;B the Scute took with them " two Bonder in Borne- 
dalen as guides." Andrew Ramea; and liia companions deponed at 
Copenhag:en that " tha peaaanle showed them the way when they landed 
at Rumsdal in tha liafiurd." Moreover, Peder Elogntes was not amongst 
thoae whom Chriatian IV. reworded. The traditions respecting Peder 
Klognsee bear tm extraordinary resemblance to those which attach in Russia 
to a popular hero named Ivan Susanin, whose devotion t« his soverogn, by 
misleading a detachment of Poles in IGll, forms the subject of the patriotic 
Russian opera called "Life for the Tsar." Kostomaroff, a modem Russian 
historian of high standing, has proved that the peasant in qaestjon never 
rendered any such eerviee, as neither the Czar nor the Poli^ detachment 
had been in the locality indicated at the time to which the legend refers. 



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so LANDINQ OF ALEXANDER RAMSAY. 

tive melody from the summit of a very high and 
distant cliff. The noble sacrifice another girl is re- 
puted to have made of her lover, whom she sent to 
save the wife of Sinclair, is a story so very touching 
that we may he glad if future historical research 
should lead to the discovery that Captain Sinclair 
was accompanied on his adventurous expedition, not 
by " wild Turks " or bloodhounds,* but in reality by 
a wife and bal^. 

This Captain George Sinclair, whose name has 
bewi wrongly given to the Scots' expedition, was a 
son of David Sinclair of Stirkoke, the illegitimate sonf 
of John, Master of Caithness, the eldest son of George, 
fourth Earl of Caithness. He was therefore a bastard 
nephew of George, fifth E^rl of Caithness, who em- 
ployed him, while he was preparing to leave for 
Norway, in the betrayal of Lord Maxwell, and in 
making him prisoner at Castle Sinclair, near Thurso.^ 

•See page 96. 

■\ It L9, however, stated in Hendersnn's " Notes on Cuthneu Families" 
ttiat he received letters of legitimation !□ 1588. 

t Lord Maxwell had been banished the realm for the slaughter of the 
Laird of Johnstone ; but returning into Scotland in 1612, he had sought 
and obtained the hospitality of his friend the Earl of Caithnesa, whose 
coantese was Iiord Maxwell's cousin. In the hope of obtainiog a reward 
from the king and favour from the Court and Priv; Council, this Earl of 
CaithoeBD, with the aid of Captain George SiDclair, delivered Lord Max- 
well to the Council, and he waa hanged at Edinbui^ in the year 1G13. 

In the aocount given of this treacherous transaction by Sir Robert 
Gordon, it is mentioned that Captain George Sinclair was at that time 



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LANDISQ OF ALEXANDER RAMSAY. 61 

"[oeparing himiHlf for Swedeik," and that the earl had tent him into 
CaithneBa to seize Maxwell, " under pretence of takin(i up men for hia 
voyage to Sweden." like hiatorian adds, that while the £arl of Caith- 
nees never obtained his expected reward, Capbun George Sinchur " came 
to hia deaarved and " in Norway ; and his version of the affair a, that u 
Sinclair "woald not be perauaded by Colimel Ramsay to stay for him 
until he could be ready also to ^," " he went forward with Gapt^n Hay 
into Sweden," and so ran " headlong to hia own dsHtruction." — [" History 
oftheEarldom of Sutherland.") Hia brother, John Sinclur, was killed 
in the same year (1612) at Tburao. 

Sir Bobert Gordon is, however, not quite reliable in hii account of 
that transaction, ior be aaya that George Sinclair, " bearing of tbe wars 
then likely to fall out, and vihidi tmittd ihorUi/ bettneea Oit Kingi of Den- 
mart and Sweden, be gathered together 160 men in Caithneaa. Having 
made up tfaia company, ho joins with Colonel Ramaay and Captain Hay 
to go into Sweden." The Calmar War commenced in the spring of 1611, 
a year before the levies were made in Scotland ; and we have seen that 
Sincbur had arranged with Lieutenant-Colonel Ramsay and Captain Hay 
to nose one hundred men eaidi (tbe strength of a oompany of infantry in 
those days), and that only three hundred men were landed by them in 
Roinsdalen, 



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DBSTBCCTION OV THE SCOTS IN OUDBRANDSDALES. 

In his first Report* to the Danish Chancellor, dated 
September 17, 1612, the Norwegian Stadtholder stated 
that when Lauritz Ha^, Leusmand of Vaage in 
Gudbrandsdalen, heard of the arrival of the Scots 
in Bomsdalen, "he at once roused the Bonder and 
peasantry in the two parishes of Lessje and Vaage, 
and went forth against the said Scots and foreign 
troops. And when he perceived they were too strong 
for him, he advanced for two or three days and kept 
before them along the road, without, however, en- 
gaging in any skirmish or fight Meanwhile, he sent 
messengers to the peasantry in the two adjoining par- 
ishes, called Froen and Itingeboe, who quickly came 
to his assistance; and when they were in this manner 
gathered they were 405 men strong. Thus he ad- 

• For complete test, Bee page 180, 



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DESTRUCTIOJf OF TEE SCOTS. 53 

vanced in front " (of the Scots) " along the road until 
he saw his advantage at a fjeld called Kringelen, situ- 
ated in Vaage parish, which they were obliged to pass. 
Thus he hemmed them in between the rock on one side 
and a large river close by on the other side, in which 
advantf^^eous position he quietly encamped in the 
woods, and there lay with his men until the foreign 
soldiers arrived there, without, however, supposing 
or knowing aught but that the Norwegian troops 
were still withdrawing along the road before them. 
The above-mentioned Lauritz Hage, having made his 
arrangements and perceived his advantage, attacked, 
together with another lensmand, Peter Rankleff of 
Ringeboe, and with all their men t(^ether they fired 
upon the foreign troops and shot them to death 
during an hour and a half. Those who were not 
shot jumped into the river to save themselves, but 
were there drowned ; and those of them who got 
alive over the riVer were quickly killed by the 
Bonder on that side ; all of which happened and oc- 
curred on the 26th of August last. From the Bon- 
der who were themselves present at the battle, and 
who buried and counted the dead wid the defeated, 
we learn that the foreign soldiers must no doubt 
have numbered at the least 550 men, although 



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M DESTSUCTIOS OF TBS SCOTS. 

the Scots who remained alive, and of whom there 
are altogether 18, will not admit that they were more 
than 350 men strong at the utmost. On the day 
the battle took place 134 Scots were taken prisoners, 
who were straightway the next day killed and shot 
by the Bonder, with the exception of the above-men- 
tioned 18, the Bonder saying to each other that His 
Majesty bad enoiigh to feed in those same 18. Some 
of these were, however, wounded, and some had bul- 
lets in their bodies, when they arrived here. Of the 
above-mentioned 18 soldiers we now send to you the 
three principal ones " (mentioning their names — 
Alexander Ramsay, James Moneypenny, and Henry 
Bruce). " Aa regards the remaining 15 persons, 
some of them have straightway taken service among 
good folk here in the country ; some of them who 
will willingly serve your Royal Majesty in Jorgen 
Lunge's Re^ment, I sent at once to Elfsborg." 

Reference is made at the end of the Report to the 
written statements of the prisoners, and to letters 
found on them, and which the Bonder had kept. 

From Envold Kruse's second Report, dated October 

3, 1612,* we learn that the letters in question were 

ultimately recovered by the Bailie of Gudbrandsdalen, 

* S«e fuU text. p. 184. 



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DESTRUCTION OF THE SCOTS. 65 

and transmitted by Kruse to Copenht^n, where, how- 
ever, they have so far not been available to the historian. 

The latter Eeport contains the following striking 
passage, which destroys so entirely the accusations 
made against the Scots in the Norwegian Sagas and 
in Edvard Storm's poem : — 

" We have also since ascertained that those Scots 
who were defeated and captured on their march 
through this country have absolutely neither burned, 
murdered, nor destroyed anything on their march 
through this country, either in Romsdalen or in 
Gudbrandsdalen." 

Only one Dane, of the name of Soren Setnses, had 
complained that the Scots had taken from him a box 
or chest o£ silver objects, such as tankards, belts, etc.; 
but even this booty the Bonder would not acknowledge 
having found on the killed or captured Scots. 

The end of this valuable document is somewhat 
damaged, but so far as the injured part can be de- 
ciphered, Kruse stated that six* of the Norwegian men 
were killed, and ten or twelve wounded, in the fight 
at Kringelen, 



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THE COMBAT AT KRINOKLEN. 

We have seen that the historical facts are as follows : 
— A detachment of about three hundred Scots, com- 
manded by Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander Bamsay and 
five other Scottish oflScers, marched safely, and with- 
out committing any acts of murder, pillage, or in- 
cendiarism, through Komsdalen and Qudbrandsdalen, 
as far as Kringelen, where it had opposed to it four 
hundred and five Bonder and peasants, under the 
leadership of two civil, not military, officers. Further, 
that one hundred and thirty-four of the Scots were 
taken prisoners, and were all killed the next day,* 



* It ia only ri);ht to mention, not in exoneration, bat i 
of the atrocioDs conduct of the Bonder, that aome of their countrymen 
hml met with n eimilar fate only a few months before. Duhe John of 
Sweden sent Colonel Kruun to wrest from the Danes the town of NyI6- 
delse and destmy its fortifications. The commandant was forced to sur- 
render at discretion on the 26th Febmuy 1612, after the foreign troops 
in the garrison had matinied. But wbile the foreign officers obtained 
Borvioe in the Swedish army, the Danish leaders, including many armed 
Bonder and a party of Norwegian riflemen, were Icxiked np in a church 
and all shot down singly. — F. H. Jalm. " Hist, om Calmarkrigen," p. 175, 



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TBS COMBAT AT ERINOELEN. 57 

except eighteen, who reached Aggershuus, now the 
fort of Chriatiania, — the losa of the victorious Nor- 
wegians being only six killed and ten or twelve 
wounded. 

Such a remarkable result could certainly only have 
been attained under very advantageous circumstances, 
and as existing documents give only the barest outline 
of the fight at Kringelen, we can only form an hy- 
pothesis upon them. 

The following conjecture is deduced from an atten- 
tive study of all that is so far known or established on 
the subject. 

It must be acknowledged that four hundred Bonder, 
only partly or imperfectly armed, could not have been 
an equal match, even in the early part of the seven- 
teenth century, for the smallest admissible number of 
Scots — namely, three hundred — that documentary 
evidence will allow us to admit, and especially if they 
had been well-armed, trained soldiers.' Some of those 
Scots, those raised by Sinclair, were apparently Caith- 
ness men, whose principal occupation had no doubt 
been warfare.* Many of them were in all proba- 
bility descendants of Norsemen who had conquered 

* Almost the entire reign ni Jiunes I. WM occupied in auppreBUDg tha 
~ a the Highlands, and even in tha 



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- 58 TBE COMBAT AT KSINOBLES. 

and held a great part of their comitry. They -were, 
to say the least, as brave and as ready to defend 
their lives as the Bonder and peaaanta of Gnd- 
brandsdal, a province which had moreover been to 
some extent drained of its younger and more able- 
bodied men for the purposes of the war of Denmark 
against Sweden. We have also seen that the attempii 
made to destroy Monnichhofen's force of about one 
thousand men by a levy of one thousand five hundred 
peasants, mounted and on foot, supported by some 
soldiers and commanded by three military officers, 
were quite unsuccessful. 

What then were the exceptional drcumsteuices that 
rendered possible the easy and utter defeat of the 
Scots at Kringelen ? 

In traditional accounts of the afiair, reproduced by 
almost every historian, much stress is laid on the 
deadly effect of the hurling down of rocks, or of what 
is known in Norway as a " tommervselte," on the heads 
of the invaders while they were passing unsuspectingly 
through a ravine, pass, or defile at Kringelen. To 
those who have not visited the locality in question 
such an explanation would perhaps be quite satisfac- 
tory; for there have been instances, both in ancient 
and modem history, of troops being destroyed by such 



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THE COMBAT AT ERINOELBN. 59 

means in mountain passes by an enemy inferior in 
number and untrained in skilled warfare. 

But an inspection of Kringelen, or a study of the 
accompanying plan prepared for this work from actual 
survey by Lieutenant Ameberg of the Norwegi<in 
army, renders impossible the acceptance of such an 
explanation. The present road, on which stands the 
stone pillar that marks the vicinity of the spot where 
the fighting occurred, dates from the beginning of this 
century. It is about forty feet below the old road, 
where it sinks into the " Sinclair Dokka " or hollow, 
in which the Scots are popularly believed to have been 
overwhelmed by huge masses of rock, and where 
human bones, supposed to be those of the Scots, have 
been dug »p. 

In an account* of a journey from Christiania to 
Trondbjem in 1733 by King Christian VT. and Queen 
Sophia the road through Gudbrandsdalen is described 
as follows :— " Froen Prgestegaard (vicarage). About 
here the road begins to show the difficulties travellers 
in Norway have to encounter." After passing Zell 
" is a road called Kringelen, on the side of a fjeld, and 
ao narrow that every precaution is necessary on the 

IT Hans Eon^ Majeitet Kong ChrietJan 



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act THE COMBAT AT KSINQELEN. 

part of travellers and drivers." Dr. Tngvar Nielsen 
states in his interesting work on the " Development 
of Roads in Norway,"" that "in 1766 Kringelen 
was the worst bit of road in Gudbrandsdalen, as it- 
was so narrow that a carriole could scarcely pass." 
In fact, it was only a bridle-path on the edge of a 
precipice 6fty to one hundred feet above the Laugen 
river. This track, which was all that the condition 
of the country required when produce was transported 
chiefly in winter on sledges, was quite open and ex- 
posed ; while above it the almost precipitous clifis, 
averaging seven hundred feet in height, left at their 
base a sloping ledge of about one hundred eind 
fifty feet in breadth. It was neither a pass nor 
a ravine, and has sometimes been described as a 
"defile," probably because not more than two men 
could have walked abreast along it, and certainly 
only a single file of men could have used it with con- 



The Bonder concealed themselves on the sloping 
ledge between the precipitous clifl and the path. The 
ledge was somewhat thickly covered with wood, which 

• "Det Noreke VejvMsens Udvikliiw. Xtia, 1876." The first ordi- 
n&nca for the general improvement of roads wsa iaeued in 163li, and re- 
newed in 1648. little wu, however, done in that direction, for in 1740 
the TotAx even about ChriBbiania ware in a frightful state. — Pnd. 



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r 



i i 



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TBE COMBAT AT ERlNaELEN. 81 

is said to have been washed away by a memorable 
rainstorm in 1789. At the same time tbere must 
have been a clear space in front both of the " tommer- 
vselte " and of the intrenchmenta which tradition says 
the Bonder erected there, although Envold Kmse 
mf^es no mention of them. 

The military officer who carefully surveyed the 
ground in the autumn of 1884 has shown on the plan 
the probable position of the celebrated " tommervselte." 
It is supposed to have been an accumulation of rocks 
piled on round beams or trunks of trees, arranged in 
such a manner as to roll down in a mass as soon as 
the ropes which held the structure in position were 
cut 

The depression in the old road known as the " Sinclair 
Dokka " has a length of about two hundred and seventy 
English feet between the highest points at its two 
extremities. It is reasonable to suppose that the 
object of the Bonder was to hurl down the rocks at 
the deepest or centre part of the depression, which 
would be about one hundred feet in length at the 
utmost, and that the length of the " tommervtelte " was 
in proportion with the size of the hollow into which 
it was destined to descend. It could not possibly have 
been even half as long as the deepest part of the 



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63 TBE COMBAT AT KRISOELEN. 

hollow itself; for an artificial structure a hundred feet 
in length, with a clear space in front of it, would 
certainly have been observed by the Scots, however 
unsuspecting they may have been, and however lax 
their military precautions. Moreover, it would have 
been strategically unwise on the part of the Sender 
to have attacked the invaders until a good part of 
them had descended into the hollow and were passing 
through it. It has therefore been assumed on the 
plan that the " tommervselte " could not have been 
more than thirty feet in length, whilst its height 
above the deepest part of the " Sinclair Dokka " has 
been fixed at about one hundred and twenty feet, partly 
as a result of a thorough examination of the configu- 
I'ation of the slope on which it stood, and partly on 
the conjecture that the structure required elevation in 
order to attain a sufficient impetus on being let loose, 
and in order also that it should be as much con- 
cealed as possible from the Scots proceeding along the 
road. 

A mathematical question here presents itself. If 
we assume that the Scots on whom the " tommervaelte" 
descended occupied the path in the " Sinclair Dokka " 
along an approximate length of even one hundred feet, 
how many could possibly have stood there ? Giving 



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THE COMBAT AT ERISaELEN. fl3 

only three feet to each man, the number could not 
have been more than thirty-three men if they marched 
in single file, or about sixty-aeven it two abreast, along 
a path so ru^ed, narrow, and dangerous. But con- 
aidering that the rocks must have taken several 
seconds to roll down the declivity, which could not 
have had a steeper gradient than forty to forty-five 
degrees, the men at the extremities of the threatened 
group must have had time to rush back at one 
end and forward at the other; and allowing for 
further chances of escape, we cannot possibly ac- 
count for the destruction of more than twenty-five 
or thirty men {even it they walked two abreast) 
by the sudden descent of an avalanche of rocks and 
timbers. 

How then were the remainder disposed of ? 

As soon as the " tommervselte " had been cast loose, 
.it may be taken for granted that the concealed 
Bonder rushed down on the startled foe, and that 
a hand-to-hand fight ensued. In tact, we know 
there was a combat of an hour and a half, in which 
Sinclair fell, and that six of the Bonder were killed 
and ten or twelve wounded. A few of the muskets 
alleged to have been carried by the Scots have 
been preserved, the arsenal at Christiania possessing 



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(M TBE COMBAT AT KBIBeXLBlT. 

five* HortoD anenal one, the descendants of Dean 
KiBg parts (^ two or three more, and Consal Heftye 
of Cbristiania a lock. The earliest English travellers 
in Norway mention having seen only a few remnants 
Ol those arms in Gadbrandadalen. From the smallnesB 
of the number of sn^ mnskets that have been pre- 
served or heard of, it most be sapposed tiiat tiie Scots 
had not many such weapons. Nor could tiiose few 
have been of mach use at close quarters on a sudden 
emergency such as that at Rringelen, since from the 
great length of their barrels (about seventy inches) 
they had to be fired from a rest 

The traditional or popular accotrnt of the mode of 
attack bears on its face a considerable amount of prob- 
ability. It is to the effect that the " tommervselte " 
was not cast loose until the " vanguard " of the Scots 
had passed. 

On the strength of all these tacts and considerations 
we arrive, in all humility, at the conjecture that the 

* Through the kindnsBB of hi> excellency O. S- Kjerulf, Master of the 
Ordnsnce, one of those muskets, and a broadsword with the cypher of 
iSaxy Qaeen of Scotf, were eihibited st the lecture that has given rise 
to thia little book. The author is likewise under deep obligations to 
Consul Heftye of Christiania. and to his son, Mr. Johannes Heftye 
of ()stxa«t, the fortunate possessor of the " Viik collection" of Scottish 
relics mentioned by all the earlier English travellers in Norway. They 
were good enough to allow their collections to be exhibited on the 
same octsnon, and to be photographed for the purpose of illustrating this 



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THE COMBAT AT ERINOELES. 65 

three hundred Scote were not all armed, and that the 
body of men described in the Sagas as the " vanguard" 
was most hkely the contingent oE " honest men's bairns 
and servants," and some of the men out of jails, 
forcibly pressed by Lieu tenant- Colonel Ramsay, and 
who were being driven captive into Sweden by Caith- 
ness men under Sinclair and Hay, armed, it may be 
conjectured, principally with sworda, the officers perhaps 
wearing armour and carrying pistols as well as swords.* 

* An illusbvlion of the pair of pistoli pre>erved at Cnpeahagen, and 
certified to have belonged to Sinclair, i> given at p. 126. Although undoubt- 
edly Scotch, and of the period, the initials A. 3. engraved on them are 
moBt probably those of Sir Andrew Sindur. (See nol«, p. 126.) The 
aworde, of which so many are still offered for sale as reUcs <if the eipedi- 
tion, are mostly of doubtful origin. The author is, however, in possesBion 
of a rusty short sword, with the Scottish crown and the letters V. R. 
very distinct on the blade, on tbe broUen-oS edge of which there would 
have been room for the letter J., tn nlring J. V. R., or Jacobus V. Rax. 
It was fonnd at Kringeten, and i* almost exactly like the sword canied 
by the third figure in the accompanying illustration, representing some of 
the "Irishmen," — I'.t, the Soots of Mackay'e regiment,— who were landed 
at Stettin in 1630. The illustration has been taken from an interestdng 
work published in ISBB, by W. Blackwood and Sons, Edinburgh and Iioo- 
don, entitled, "An Old Scote Brigade; being the History of Mackay's 
Regiment, now incorporated with the Royal Scots," The author, Mr. John 
Hadiay, late of Herriesdale, has generously allowed the block to be used 
for the purposes of this little work. 

Another award, in a wooden sheath covered with leather, and which 
bad evidently been nsed as a walking-stick by Some Bonde. was pur- 
dianed by the author as an authentic relic of the Scots, and presented by 
him to His Majesty King Oscar II., as a weapon that had in all proba- 
bility been used in the lervice of His Majesty's great predecessor, Gusta- 
vns Adolphus. The motto, " Honni soit qui mal y pense," engraved on 
the long straight blade of the sword, made it all the more appropriate 
that His Majes^, as a Knight of the Garter, should be the possesior of 



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66 THE COMBAT AT KRIJfQBLEN. 

It has been already shown that Mbniiichhofen was 
to have supplied arms for the Scottish levies, with 
which he failed to eombiaa Moreover, the Swedish 
agent at Amsterdam reported that he feared the pro- 
jects ot General Halkett (one of Ramsay's confederates) 
would fail, " because of the lateness o£ the season, and 
because the men had no weapons, while everywhere in 
Norway the people were up in arms."* The deposi- 
tion, taken at Copenhagen, of Alexander Ramsay, the 
leader of the expedition, also shows that Monnichhofen 
was to have supplied the Scots with arms from Hol- 
land. We have moreover seen that in its acts and 
proclamations against the proceedings of the Ramsays 
and others, the Scottish Privy Council made no men- 
tion of disarming the men who were to be sent home 
under precautions that were in other respects so cai-e- 
fuL Nor is it likely that the men who had been 
forcibly seized and kept on board the ships would at 
once have been supplied with arms by their oppressors. 
The remarkable fact that the Scots committed no 
depredations in the valleys through which they passed 



* Under the Danish law of th&t period every able-bodied Bonde was 
compelled to provide himself with t. inuaket nr arquebuee ; but it is most 
tB-obab1e that the men who had not been takeu away ti> fight the Swedes 
remained, to a great extent, snned only with pikes, crossbows, and axes, 
of which an illustntian Is given at page 106. 



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TBS COMBAT AT KRINOELEN. 67 

— a forbearance out of keeping witb the custom of 
that age, either in Scotland or in Scandinavia — sug- 
gests that the troops under Ramsay were subject to 
strict discipline on so daring and dangerous a mardi. 
This task probably devolved more especially on Cap- 
twn Sinclair and Captain Hay, who, while in command 
of the armed men employed in guarding and driving 
before them the captive " honest men's bairzis and ser- 
yants," were the only officers killed ;" and this may 
account for the popular belief that Sinclair was the 
chief of the expedition. 

If therefore the conjecture be correct, that none but 
the Caithness men were armed at all, and they chiefly 
with swords, the almost entire annihilation of the 
three hundred men by four hundred Bonder ia seen to 
have been easy enough under the circumstances that 
have been described. 

Such is the conclusion that results from the premises 
here submitted ; and remembering how important it ia 
that national history should be correctly known, it is 
to be hoped that the researches already made will lead 

■ Th&t Captun Hay was killed is not aUted mther in the official docu- 
ments or in the Sagas ; but as he waa not amongst the prisoneis forwarded 
to Aggershuiu, he most bare shared the fata of George Sinclair. It ia also 
not ilnprobable that in order to save their own lives when taken prisoners, 
the mrviTing affioers pointed to the body of Sinclair as that of their com- 
mander. 



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66 THE COMBAT AT KBIHOELBN. 

to the lifting of the cloud confessedly hanging over 
this episode of the distant past, and that some historian 
in time to come may be helped by them, however 
Blightly, in directing the light of truth upon the 
mists that still remain to be dispelled on the subject 
of the disastrous expedition of the Scots to Norway 
in 1612. 



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Part n. 
Tradition. 



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THE SINCLAIR BALLAD.* 

Herr Sinclair sailed across the sea, 
And steerfid his course to Norway's strand : 
'Mid Gudbrands' rocks his grave found he, — 
There were broken crowns in Sinclair's band. 

Herr Sinclair sailed o'er the blue wave. 
That he might fight for Swedish gold : 
God help thee, man ! thyseli now save ; 
Thoult fall before the Norsemen bold. 

The moon amid the pale night shone, 
The waves around so gently rolled ; 
A mermaid rose on Sinclair's sights 
And thus prophetic evil told : — 

■ By E. StOTtn, who was bora at Vaaffe, in Gudbrandedal, in 1742, and 
died at Copenha^n in 1T94. The preaent tronsljLtion haa been taken, 
with Bome alight altBrations, from " Over the Dovre Fjeld," by J. S. 
Shepherd. Henry S. King and Co.,lS73. An earlier Engliah version 
WW attached to Calder'a " Hiatory of Gaithneas," 1861. A third tranala- 
tion, by Sir H. Pottinger, with on illuatration of the death of Sinclair, 
appeared in B^ffratia, 1869. The ballad liaa been aet C« music in Norway. 



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SINCLAIR BALLAD. 

"Turn back, turn back, thoo Scottish man. 
Or it will Burely cost thy life ; 
For if thou com'st to Norway's strand, 
Thou never more slialt join the strife." 

" Thy songs are lies, thou witch most foul ; 
Thou ever sing'st the self -same tune. 
Could I but get thee in my power, 
In pieces small I'd have thee hewn." 

He sailed a day, he sailM three, 
With all hia mercenary band ; 
The fourth he Norway's shore did see,^ 
On Komsdal's coast he leapt to land. 

And with him fourteen hundred men : 
On mischief all that band were bent ; 
They spared nor young nor aged then, 
But slew and burnt oa on they went. 

The child they killed at mother's breast, 
Nor cared how sweet soe'er its smile ; 
Of widows' tears they made a jest : 
Sorrow's loud cry arose the while. 

Throughout the land the wail resounds ; 
The heaven blazed ; the cross of fire 
Sped its swift course ; and Sinclair soon 

Shall feel the vengeful dalesman's ire. 

The soldiers of the king are gone ; 
We must ourselves the land defend. 
To shed his blood will ne'er grudge one ; 
On such may Heaven's wrath descend ! 



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SINCLAIR BALLAD. 

FeafantA from Taage, Lesje, Loiu, 
With axes yharp on shoulder set, 
To parley with the Scota are come. 
And now at Bredebygd are met. 

There runs a path by mountain side 
Which our vale-folk do Kringlen cally 
And Laugen's stream beneath doth glide, — 
In that shall our fierce foemen fall. 

On walls no more our rifles hang ; 
The rocks are lined with marksmen gray ; 
The water-sprite lifts up its head, 
And waits impatiently its prey. 

The first shot pierced Herr Sinclair's breast, — 
He groaned, and forth his spirit gave ; 
And aa he fell, each Scot cried out, 
" O God, in this our peril save !" 

" On, peasants ! on, Norwegian men I 
Let each foe find a Sinclair's grave !" 
The Scots now wished themselves home again, 
And only strove their lives to save. 

With corpses thick was Kringlen strewn ; 
High festal did the ravens keep ; 
The noblest blood that this day flowed 
The Scottish maidens long did weep. 

And not a sou! of that array 
To Scotlajid e'er returned to tell 
His counttymcn of that dark day, 
And how the sad event befell. 



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SINCLAIR BALLAD. 

'JUid Norway's mountains still tkere stands 

A column raised upon the spot : 

Let Norway's foes from other lands 

Behold it, and despise it not. 

No Norseman sees it rise on high, 

But marks it with a flashing eye. 

c H. 



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=flbyGo(.)gIe 



NORWEGIAN TRADITIONS COLLECTED BY THE 
KEV. H. P. S. KRAQ.* 

The so-called Calmar War, between Denmark and 
Sweden, was carried on from the spring of 1611 until 
the winter of 1613. Christian IV. ruled at that time 
over the kingdoms of Denmark and Norway ; while in 
Sweden reigned Charles IX., who died at the com- 
mencement of the war, leaving its prosecution to his 
son Gustavus Adolphua, then only seventeen years of 
i^e, and who subsequently became so famous. 

In 1612 Gustavus caused foreign troops to be 
enlisted in the Netherlands, in England, and in Scot- 
land, by JoHAN MUNKHAVEN, Or Monnichhofen, a 
colonel in the Swe<:lish service, and by James Spcns, 

■ [" Sagn, Somlede om Slogeb ved Krii^Ieo," etc Chiisljania, 1838. 
Tnuulated from the Norwegian b; the author, who ia iadebtod for much 
Me wautenoe to Mr. T. T. Somerville of Chrisbiania. The more uicient 
BpeUing of proper names, such as " Krii^en," etc, has been ret*iiied in 
this tnuslatioii.— T. M.] 



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7« NORWEaiAS TRADITIONS. 

an Englishman. According to the historian Widi- 
kindi, the corps thus raised amounted to 2,200 men, 
whUe Puffendorff estimates its strength at 2,300.* 
These troops, of which 2,000 had heen recruited in 
Scotland, were- transported in ships, forming two 
squadrons, of which one was commanded by Munk- 
haven, the other by the Scottish Colonel George Sin- 
clair, or Saint Clair, as his name is also written. 
Munkhaven, with his 1,400 men, steered into the 
Trondhjem fiord on the 19th July 1612, and thought 
he would be able to surprise the city of Trondhjem ; 
but the citizens opposed him and his ships so well 
from their blockhouses outside the town that he 
hastened away as quickly as possible, and landed 
at Stordalen, whence he marched, ravaging and burn- 
ing, until he reached Sweden.-f- A few weeks 
after Munkhaven, the other detachment of hired 
troops, led by Colonel Sinclair, arrived in two Scottish 



* Fitfa " History of Gustavua Adolphus," by Joh. Widikindi." Stock- 
holm, 1691. P. 110. " Introduction to Swedish History," by S. Pufien- 
dorff. Stockholm, 1GS8. P. 605. SUnge'a " HUtory of Christian IV.," 
published by Gram (1 vol. Copenhagen, 1749. P. 313), and tronskted 
into German (with an Appendix) by Schlegel. 1 vol. CojtenliBigeQ, 1757. 
P. 553, What later historiani relats respecting the fight at Kringlen 
ie more or less only a repetition of the accounts given by the above 
authors. 

+ Vide " Samlinger til det Norske Folks 8prog og Historie," vol. 3 B, 



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NOBWEaiAX TRADITIONS. 77 

But Sinclaii and his men were not destined to 
escape so easily as Munkhaven. The Fates ordained 
that thej should all, with the exception of a few, find 
a grave among the mountains of Norway. The reason 
why both Munkhaven and Sinclair landed in Norway, 
instead of proceeding direct to Sweden, was that the 
approach to the small stretch of Swedish coast on the 
North Sea was closed to them after the Danes had 
occupied the fortresses of Elfsborg and GuUberg, at 
the mouth of the Gotha river. Moreover, the Danish 
fleet had the mastery on the seas. 

There are various statements as to the number of 
the Scots that accompanied Sinclair. If the total 
number of troops recruited for Sweden was, as already 
mentioned, 2,200 or 2,300, of which Munkhaven 
arrived with 1,400, Sinclair's corps must have 
amounted to 800 or 900 men, and the latter number 
is also quoted in the church register of Vaa^* Con- 
sequently, the number could not have been 1,400, as 
sung by Storm, nor 600, as stated by Slange. It is, 

* The Vaage church regUter contoina, with reference to the entire 
event, only the following linea, entered by Anders Munch, priest, in 
1731 : "Anno 1612, Colonel Jor^n (George] Zinchel, as he came from 
Romadttlen with 900 men to combine with the Swedes, who were at 
Baare Church (that la, Borge Church, in Sraaalenene), waa attacked 
by the Bonder at Kringlen, and totally beaten, with all his men, ex- 
cepting bis wife, and three handicraftsmen of whom the Bonder had 



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78 NORWEGIAN TRADITIONS. 

however, probable thai Slange was right, as his state- 
ment agrees approximately with Kmse's Report, which 
says that, according to the depositions of the Bonder 
" who were present at that battle, and who buried 
and counted the dead and defeated, the Scots must 
certainly have numbered at least 550," Less pro- 
bable appears to be the statement of the captured 
Scots, to the effect that they were "350 men strong 
at the utmost." One Saga says that Sinclair came 
into Romsdalen with 1,400 men, and that these 
were divided at Jora Bridge, in Lessij, after which 
one division went over the Dovre Fjeld, and subse- 
quently through Osterdalen, in order to unite ^;ajn 
with the other division which took the road through 
Gudbrandsdalen. The same Sags says that the divi- 
sion which went through Osterdalen came across the 
Norsemen at the frontier, when a battle ensued, in 
which those Scots were shot down to the last man. 
But that Saga is not generally current ; and it ap- 
pears probable that Uunkhaven's expedition, or pos- 
sibly some other event, has been mixed up in the 
narrative.* It appears that Sinclair had calculated 
on joining the Swedes in Southern Norway, where. 



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yORWEOIAN TRADITIONS. 79 

however, we know from history there were no Swedes 
at that time ; for Jonas Bamus states * that, from 
. Gudbrandsdalen, Sinclair wanted to " unite with the 
Swedes who were supposed to be in Hedemarken," or, 
as stated in the entry above quoted from the Vat^e 
church register, at Borge Church, in Smaalenene. 

It was on the 19th or 20th Auguatf that Sinclair, 
with all his hired followers, approached the Norwe- 
^an coast, and steered into the Romsdal fiord ; hut 
a Saga relates that before he entered that fiord he 
landed on a small island on which dwelt a wealthy 
man. The wife of the latter is said to have been an 
intelligent and talkative woman, and Sinclair entered 
into a jocose conversation with her. Although he had 
not yet made known that he was an enemy, yet 
the woman said she well understood the object of 
his coming ; that his expedition into Norway would 
end badly, and that when he got inland he would 
come to bite the dust on meeting the hardy men of 
the glens. This enraged Sinclair, and he left the 
island with the threat that when he returned vic- 



* In his " Norgea Beskr," pp. 86 and 18L 

-f- Kthm'b Report. [Dean KiBg- appears to have been acquainted only 
with Enue's first Report, vhich he reprodnced m an appendix to hia 
work. Tha tranalation of a more accurate copy will be found at p. 180. 
-T. M.] 



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80 NORWEOIAK TRADITIOya. 

torioua, he would seek her out and have her cut to 
pieces for her flippancy. 

It is possible that this and other similar Sagas may 
have induced the poet Storm to sing about a mermaid. 
It is also related that the mermaid's name was Ellen. 
Others saj that was the name of Sinclair's wife ; for 
the Sagas say she accompanied him. She went on 
board with the troops, in disguise, and only made 
herself known after they had got out to aea. She is 
said to have given birth to a child on the voyage. 

A Bonde called Peder Klogmes, seeing from his 
Oaard or farm of Klognses," in the parish of Grytten, 
in Romsdalen, Sinclair's ships out in the fiord, sup- 
posed they were vessels laden with com, took his 
purse in which were three dollars, taid rowed out to 
them, with the object of purchasing before the vessels 
reached Vieblungsnses, towards which Sinclair was 
steering. As soon as Peder Elognsss got on board, 
he understood what kind of folk they were ; and as 
they wanted to compel him to pilot the ships to 



* Such WM the name of the farm in Uie old church regiBtere. It is now 
callad EJnngiuee. Klilwer in liis "Noreke Minde^mferker " (Narwegian 
Memorula), p. 124, states that it was a member iif the coble fomil; of 
Slcaktavl, persecnted in the reign of Chriatiain II., and who bad conse- 
quently Bed to Romsdalen, where the descendants lived as Bonder on 
Che farm or gaanl of Hellan, that Sinclair wanted to compel to pilot his 
ships into Vtcblunefsntes. 



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JfOSWEOIAN TRADITIONS. 81 

YseblungSDfes, &t the head of the Komsdal fiord, he 
reflected hurriedly, and soon determined what he 
should do. He made them believe that the water 
was too low to admit of the vesaela sailing further 
into the flord, and that aU they could do was to land ; 
and Peder Klognees was forced to accompany them. 
In order that he should not escape, they fastened a 
cord to his hair and led him by it. The Scots then 
disembarked at Skothammer, or Skotkleven (the 
Scots' Cliff), as the place ia now called, in the vicinity 
of Klognses gaard (farm). Before they proceeded any 
further, Peder Klogmea, after much supplication, ob- 
tained pennission to go first into his house. Although 
a guard followed him, he found an opportunity of 
sending a Budetikke* announcing the arrival of the 
enemy, and calling upon the people to take up arms.f 
He gave the letter to his servant-maid, who hid it in 
one of her stockings, and dressing herself in tattered 
clothes, pretended she was a be^ar as well as idiotic, 
and in that manner, but with di£Eculty, she slipped past 
the Scottish watch. When the latter wanted to pre- 
vent her from passing, she said, " Lord, bless us ! it is 
too hard that poor folk should not be able to go their 

■ [A message pawed on in the hollow of a ataff.— T. M.] 
t Some ioj that he wrote this OD a piece of wood on the way up to hia 
house from the eea-Hhore. 



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tn NORWEQIAN TBADITIONS. 

way," on which the watch allowed her to paas. She 
got safely to the aea-shore, and rowed to VBeblungsnses 
with the letter (or Budstikke), which was sent forward 
from thence. Meanwhile Peder 'EXo^ass led the Scots 
two miles * out of the way, round the Iia6ord, over 
mountains and marshes, and through woods in which 
there were no roads, as well as over rivers where 
they had to wade, so that, as Peder Klc^nses had in- 
tended, they were considerahly delayed on the march. 
The Bonder in the several parishes had thus time to 
save themselves and also their goods from being plun- 
dered, and time was moreover gained for the circu- 
lation of the message. 

It was under these circumstances that Sinclair with 
his Scots landed in the country in which he thought 
he was going to play the part of a conqueror ; for, 
according to the Saga, he said that he would " recast " 
the Norwegian hon into a mole which would not dare 
to creep out of its hole, and he promised his men that 
after the conquest of the country they would get "the 
fairest maidens and the best farms." It was further 
promised to them that Hedemarken would be to them 
"a land of Canaan." 

There are not many Sagas respecting the behaviour 

• [Each seven EogliBh.— T. M.] 



IfOSWEOIAIf TRADITIONS. 83 

of the Scots, and as to what occurred on their march 
until they reached GudbrandsdaJen. It is, however, 
related that on the circuitous and difficult way round 
the lisfiord they came to the small farm of Thorvig. 
Its inhabitants had fled, and had hidden their bedding 
in a cleft on the fleld ; but the Scots found it, cut 
holes in it, shook out the feathers, and took the covers 
with them. They arrived at last at Omdals or Aana- 
dals-nses, where they rested after the fatigues of going 
round the lisfiord. Here Peder Elognees, the guide, 
found an opportunity of hiding, unobserved, the three 
dollars already mentioned under some birch bark, 
where he found them on his return. 

According to Eruse's Eeport, the Scots made two 
Bonder prisoners in Romsdalen, and employed them 
as guides ; and Slange likewise states that they com- 
pelled some Bonder to go in advance and tell the 
peasantry to supply provisions at certain places and 
at a time indicated, under threat of killing and hnm- 
ing if this was not done. From Omdals-nses the 
Scots marched some miles along the ordinary road up 
the Romsdal At a cottage called Aagerreiten, on the 
estate of Aag, close to Omdal, a small building was 
being erected. The workmen fled when they heard of 
the enemy's approach. This building still stands, and 

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!M NORWBQIAN TllADITiOlfS. 

the date ICll is to be seen carved on a board near 
the chimney. 

At a farm-houae — it is not known which — lower 
down in Romsdal, the Scots are said to have cut off 
the feet of a dog which the people, who had run away, 
had fastened to the door of their store-house, in order 
that it might let them know when the Scots came. 
At the farm of Eidet (Odeeidet) one of the Scots is 
reported to have been shot from the other side of the 
river by a man who belonged to a farm called Fiva. 
From the farm of Maange, a little further up in 
Romsdal, the inhabitants had fled, hut food had been 
left placed on the table. At Rodstulen farm, a " wild 
Turk," as the Saga calls him, who accompanied the 
Scots, was shot. Schoning * relates that the Romsdal 
men assembled and attacked the Scots with sticks and 
stones, without, however, being able to arrest their 
advance. The Saga also says that they had intended 
to attack them at Maangehammer and at Skiri, as 
well as at Kyllinge Kiev and Bjomekleven — the latter 
being a mountain pass where Romsdal joins Gud- 
brandsdal ; but nothing came of it, as the Scots got 
to those places too early, and the Romsdal men, more- 



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yORWEOIAW TRADITIONS. 85 

over, lacked both arms and leaders. Sinclair there- 
fore advanced without hindrance, and committed 
many an act of cruelty on his march. Dread and 
terror were therefore connected with his name. Many 
fled to the mountains, but some were seized by the 
Scots. It is said that girls and young married women 
were violated and then mutilated, and left in that 
condition by the Scots. All they were able to find in 
the way of money — silver or gold — they took with 
them. Corn-fields and meadows were trodden down, 
farms were burned, and so forth. Storm describes the 
frightful conduct of the Scots in powerful language : — 

" And with him fourteen hundred men : 

On mischief all that band were bent ; 

They epured nor young nor a){ed then, 

But slew and burnt aa on they went. 

•' The child they kiUed at mothar'a breast, 
Nor oared how sweet aoe'er its smile ; 
Of widows' tears they made a jest ; 
Sorrow's loud cry arose the while."* 

When the Scots got to the head of the Bomsdal 
valley, they did not dare to keep to the road any 
further, and being afraid of passing the Bjiimekleven 
(the "Bears' Cliff"), they took to the mountains. 
They probably came down again at the farm of 
e accuaatione are devoid of troth. See 



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86 JfORWBaiAN TRADITI0S8. 

Eneboe,* in Lessb, Qudbrandsdalen. There is a post 
at tliat farm on which the date 1612 is said to have 
been cut as a memorial of somebody that had been 
killed there by the Scots. When they got thence to 
the farm of Skauge, they found that the owner and 
all the other inhabitants had fled, except the owner's 
grandmother, who thought she had nothing to fear on 
account of her advanced age. The Scots killed the 
old woman and burned the fanu. A little to the south 
of that farm is a plain which was and still is called 
Mserrasletten, where they encamped and rested a day.-f- 
It is further related that when they came to the farm 
of Kjelshuua, in Lesso, they found a meal prepared 
for them ; but on leaving, they emptied a barrel of 
flour out on the road, and burned the farm. The 
people had fled to Lordalen, on the west side of the 
Laagen.| At Nordrehuus farm there was a stout- 

* It appeare from & CenBiu for the tuution of Gndbr&niiadal in 1612 
that the faim was at that tima accufued b; a woman named Birta Eneboe. 
(" List of those in Qudbrandsdal's bailiwicli who were reqaired to pay by 
Michaelmas day 1612 the tax imposed for the requirements of the war 
between these three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden.") 
This list was made out by the bailie Lauritz(orLaiB) Oram, and oontaina 
the names both of the Odels Bonder (allodial proprietors) and tenants, 
and of the owners of untenanted farms, eub-tenants, and cottagers in tho 
bailiwick. 

t The fjeld which Kmae mentions in his Report, and calls Msera- 
toppene, was undoubtedly near this spot. 

X The river was thos called in the northern part of Gudbrandsdalen ; 
farther south it was more generally called Laugen. 



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NORWEGIAN TRADITIONS. 87 

he&rted woman called Sbnuef, from Lorn, married to 

Nordrehuus. While the Scots were ravt^^ii^ the 

vaUey, she did not run away with the rest, but 

remained, although she was pregnant ; and when the 

enemy came to the farm, she hid herself in a bam, 

in order to put out any fire which the Scots might 

kindle on their departure. She was fortunately not 

discovered, nor was the farm burned down. At Bjokne 

farm the house-wife had on her flight forgotten to 

take with her some valuables, and therefore hurried 

back to save them. As soon as she had done this, 

she saw the vanguard of the Scots already approaching 

the farm ; but she got away safely. The man at 

Tondevold* had intended to make a stand at once 

against the Scots with the people of Lesso, but found 

they were too weak. He then set out a quantity of 

food and drink on his table, while he and ' his wife 

went up an eminence opposite the farm to watch 

the fate of their house. The Scots, on reaching the 

farm, regaled themselves with the viands which they 

found, and it is said the table on which Sinclair ate 

is still preserved. After they had eaten, they searched 

the house for anything that might be worth carrying 

• In Gnun'a Cenaiu « 
and Peder Nordhiiua aa 
not named. 



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88 IfORWEQIAX TRADITIOtrS. 

away ; but they only found behind the door of the 
cow-houee a heifer, and they cut off its legs. On 
leaving, they are said to have set fire to one of the 
out-houses ; but it went out of itself without spread- 
ing. Where they found food set out at farms, they 
were afraid lest the Bonder had poisoned it, and 
therefore they first gave their doga to eat of it. 

As already stated, the people fled everywhere to the 
mountains. Amongst other places to which some fled 
were the Sjonghiiiderne (heights), from which they saw 
the march of the Scots through the pariah. When 
the Scots saw people on the heights, it is reported 
that they said they would visit those " fjeld cats " 
after they had conquered the country. 

At bridges and cross-ways their guide, PederKIognsBS, 
was compelled by menaces to tell if any danger need 
be apprehended, which was the right way, etc When 
they got to Bottems Bridge, at Lesao, they burned it, 
as they feared that the Bonder of that district might 
fall upon them in the rear ; and they then marched 
to the parish of Dovre. As the road seemed to be 
too long to Peder Klognies, who was still obliged to 
remain with the Scots, and as he had long been tired of 
their company, he is said to have found at the Kjorum 
farms an opportunity of leaving them, and was already 



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irOJtWEOIAN TRADITIONS. 



a short way on the road back when he was overtaken 
and compelled by cuts and blows to go on with them. 
When they thus reached Jora Bridge, a short distance 
thence, the Scots were afraid that some danger might 
be at hand ; consequently they had the bridge exam- 
ined, and sent out spies. As they found at that 
bridge two roads, — of which one went southwards, 
the other eastwards, — and Peder Klognses having 
pointed out the former, which they thought was not 
the right direction, they suspected him of an intention 
to deceive them ; therefore they hung him over the 
bridge, and ducked him several times in the river, 
threatening to leave him there if he did not show 
them tiie right way. But he kept to his statement, 
which was really a true one, and said, " If I were to 
die here— so help me, God ! — I know no other road," 
on which they drew him up and proceeded further. 
Others allege that this happened at Dovre Bridge. It 
is said that on their march through Dovre parish, on 
a plain called Kraakvolden, below the farms of Land- 
hem, they held a feast in a bam (still extant in 1836), 
and amused themselves with dancing. The people 
who had fled to the mountains saw them dancing 
there. It is also related that they here held a day of 
prayer, on account of the proximity of Eosten, Bsegils- 



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90 NORWEOIAtr TRADITIONS. 

kleven, and " the high bridge," in order that they 
might safely pass those dangerous places* 

Meanwhile the arrival of the Scots had been re- 
ported in the south part of Gudbrandsdalen. The 
soldiers belonging to that valley were then away on 
the Swedish frontier fighting the enemy. All the 
troops that had been stationed in the South Fjeld 
district had, in fact, been drawn away, partly to the 
frontier at Bahuus Lehn, partly to the Danish army 
which had invaded Sweden from Skaane-f It was 
therefore only the Bonder of that valley who could 
oppose the Scots. 

No sooner had the lensmandj Lauritz (or Lars) 
Hage,§ who lived at Hage farm, in Dovre parish, 

* RoBten is a rood along the cliff m Sel, an Knnei to Vaitge, leadiof; 
to Dovre, and ia a. different place from Rnsten, the name of the road that 
leads to Vaatce. BEegilakloven IBa^erklaven?) liea in Ringebo, and Sin- 
clair ia reported to haie said that aa Boon as he reached it, he would take 
to the fjeld at Odlaug (Olo), a farm in Ringebo, and thence come down 
to "the high hridge" — that ia, Troraae Bridge, in Ringebo, whioh also 
well detietved ita name, for it coaaiated of li^ laid between two rocka, 
ninety feet high, orer the Tromae river, mnnii^t below. 

+ Among the soldiers from Gudbrandsdalen who were with that armj 
was a man from Lunde, in Yaage, who is reported to have stated on hia 
return home that he had taken part in the burning of seven parishes. 

i [Diatrict police and sheriff officer.— T. M.] 

g Slange calls him a "Boelsiganiand," which must be a clerical or printer's 
error, aa mnat also be the name of Hans, instead of Lara, as he is called in the 
3i^ns. and perhaps as he was called in familiar language, or Lauritz, as he ia 
named in Knise's Report and in Christian Fourth's Dead of Gift, and as he 
wrote it himself in a letter stil! kept at Tofte farm, in the parish of Dovre. 
In Gram's Census he is entered aa Jjanrita Hage, which was probably eon- 



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NORWEaiAN TBADITIONS. 91 

heard of the arrival of the Scots, than he determined 
to oppose their march. He quickly caused messages 
to be sent to the adjoining parishes, whence they were 
carried further up the valley. It is said that he cajne 
into the church at Dovre during divine service, and 
giving three knocks on the floor with his staff, said, 
" Give attention ! The enemy has come into the 
country," on which the service was stopped, and the 
people hurried out of the church. At his summons 
the Bonder armed themselves and hastened to march 
a Norwegian mile and a half south to the above- 
mentioned cliff- road of Boaten, a little north of the 
post-house of Laurgaard, in Sel. Here they halted, 
and intended to await the Scots. For that purpose 
they began to prepare a breast-work, or a construc- 
tion such as that which was later raised at Kringlen ; 
but the result of a council, at which the men of 
Dovre and Lesao voted for continuing the work, 
while the rest were of the opposite opinion, was that 
they abandoned the work they had commenced, and 
withdrew further south. But on Lauritz Hage's wise 
advice, in order to delay the enemy, they first de- 

ndered Ut have a more distinf^iBhed aound than Lars Hogs. However, 
tiie name Lara do«s not occur anywhere in thatCenans, and "Lauritz" is 
eversrwhere sabatituted for it. The bailie Gram also signs himself in the 
CenmiB not Imts, bnt " Lauritz," which is abn the name on hie seal. 



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98 NORWEOIAN TSADITIONS. 

stroyed Rosten Bridge ; and consequently, when the 
Scota got to Rosten they were obliged to take to the 
fjeld.* 

When the Bonder got down to Sel, they combined 
with a number of others, who had come from the 
south, probably from Fi-oen and Ringebo. Here they 
remained for the night at Romungaard, Jorgenstad, 
Olstad, and other farms.-f- which then lay more in a 
cluster than now. There they got hold of some 
barrels of beer, and several of the Bonder gave them- 
selves up to carousing duriiig the night. When the 
morning came, and they had to go further, some of 
the peasants would not leave their beloved ale. Others 
were, however, wise enough to spike the beet-casks 
by knocking in the spigots and then cutting them off 
close. The carousers could therefore get no more ; 
otherwise they would probably have remained drink- 
ing until the Scots came up to them. Nor were the 
latter far off; for the very day on which the Bonder 

* The above traditioa (Saga) respecting the first plan of the Gud- 
braudsdsl men for sttacJcing Sincl^r sgreea approximately with Kruse's 
Beport, in which it is stated that Lauritz Hags, as Boon as he became 
aware of the coming of the Scots, " at once rouBCd the Bondor," etc. 
(S»e Kmse'a Report for end of citation to "who quickly eame to hi« 
MMBtWIOO," p. 181.— T, M.] 

i In Gram's list, OluS Romoengatd, OluS Oolstad, Alff Jorgenstad, 
Ame Lanrgard, Olnff Breden, and others, are all mentioned as tenanta in 



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NORWEGIAN TRADITIONS. 93 

left, the Scots arrived in the evening, and took up 
their quarters there for the night. The Bonder then 
went one and a half mile (Norwegian) southwards, 
and finally halted at Kringlen, where they determined 
to await and attack the Scots. This place is situated 
in Bredenbygd, in Sel's annex to Vaage parish, and is 
a mountain slope, over which the road goes. At the 
foot of that slope, which is in many places excessively 
precipitous, flows the Laagen. At that time the road 
was only a narrow path or bridle-path, but it has 
since been altered and enlarged into a highway.* 
Moreover, the ground has undei^one some change 
since 1612, especially in consequence of the landslip 
of 1789, when it became less precipitous. There was 
also more wood then than now. The name of the 
place is generally written " Kringlen," under which 
designation it has become best known. On the other 
hand, in the language of the common people the place 
was called Kringom, or Hog Kringom.-f- 

The Bonder who there assembled were from Vaage, 
Lesso, Froen, and Ringebo. Both Slange and Edv. 

' [Niiw replaced by the chaiuiie lower down. See plan.— T. M.] 
■h The place got its name from the cur ve taken by theroad along tJie moiui- 
tain, or becBuee the road between the farms to the south and north goes raund 
("onikring")the crags that are there; forin olden days the word "omkring" 
(amand) was, as it still partly is, in the language of the Bonder, " kringum." 
Likewise in old Norwegian the word "Krjngia'' meant a drcle, a curve. 



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»4 NOaWBaiAS T&ADlTIOtrs. 

storm atate that the Bonder From Lom were there 
too, and it is possible that some may have been 
present, perhaps, from Qarmo, an annex to Lom ; hot 
according to a very common tradition current at Lom 
itself, the men of Lom, although they assembled and 
marched out, did not take part in the fight The fact 
in, that the people from the southern or greater part 
of Skjager annex went over the Findal Mountaina, 
and down again through Vaage, in order to engage 
the enemy, but arrived too late. Those of the parish 
of Lom proper, and of the northern part of Skjager, 
also went part of the way — namely, within half a 
Norwegian mile to the east of Lom Church, to a 
hill in the neighbourhood of Grafier farm ; but here 
they began to deliberate as to what they should do, 
and the result was that they returned to their sev- 
eral homes, on the advice of the " lads from Skjel- 
qvale,"* and more especially alter considering that 
the Scots would not in any case come to Lom, and 
that the matter, consequently, did not concern them. 
That hill is to this day called " Raadsbakken,"f or 

* Labnurerti (BSiiderkarle) from Skjelqvale farm. 

f Ra&dBbakken lies about five and a half Nnrwegian miles frou Krin- 
glen. Tha men of Lom are often to this day reproached hj the other 
inhabitants of Gudbrandedal for having gone back from Raadabakken. 
Hjorthili, in hia " Description of Gudbrandsdaian " (BeBkrivebe af Gud- 
brandadalen), part ii., page 67, Bays that the word "Loer," which WM 



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HORWEQIAN TBADITIOSS. 96 

Council Hill. In addition to the Bonder assembled 
at Kringlen, the peasantry of Qusdal and Oiers took 
up a position in the above-named Bsegilsklev, or Bffig- 
gersklev, in Eingebo, about five Norwegian miles to 
the south of Kringlen, under the leadership of 
Lauritz (or Lars) Gram, the bailie of Gudbrandsdalen, 
who lived at the farm of Stfiig, in Froen. That posi- 
tion was probably selected in order to meet the possi- 
bility of the Scots escaping from the Bonder posted 
to the north. The latter were led by Lauritz Hage, 
lensmand at Dovre (in Lesso ?), and Feder Bandklev, 
lenstaand in Bingebo. According to some accounts, 
Guldbrand Sejelstad, of the same parish, was also 
amongst the leaders* 

The Bonder now prepared at Kringlen to meet 
Sinclair and his Scots. As already stated, the latter 
had taken to the mountfiins in order to avoid Rosten, 
and had descended into the valley at Eorgenlien in 

likewiBe applied to them, origiiuited from their having " lingered bo long 
OD Ruidsbakken ; " and he thinks that " L&er " is afnonymoua with Loi 
— tliat Ib, Blothful, indoleot, or dilatory in coining forward. But this 
conjecture is scarcely right, for "LS" nndoubtcdly comeB from the 
ancient name of the district — Lo, Loar (see Snorre Stiirlsaon) ; moreover, 
UiB men of I>om tolerate their beiug called "Lder," which the; certainly 
would not do if an; disgrace attached to the appellation. 

* Slange calli Gnldbrand Sejelatad the "lenamand "atRingebo, bntin 
Kruse'a Ksport, ae well as in Hjorthoi's wotk, in the part above dted, Uiat 
title is given to Feder Randklev. The name of the latter occurs likewise in 
Gram'a Census, where, however, the name of the former \a not to be found. 



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W NOSWEaiAS TRADITIONS. 

Nordre Sel, and taken up their quartem there for 
the night, after the Bonder had retired from that 
farm in the morning. Sinclair slept at Romungaard, 
where are still to be found the remains of the room 
he occupied, and now used as a bam.* The Bonder 
in Nordre Sel had fastened oxen to the fences, in 
order that the enemy should not bum down their 
farms. Some say that the Scots remained a day at 
Sel before they proceeded further. " Now begins 
prosperity ; it will be better still over in Hedemar- 
ken," Sinclair is reported to have seiid to his people. 
In the morning, before he marched up from Sel, a 
few houi-s previous to the battle at Kringlen, he is 
said to have burned some powder on the palm of his 
hand, in order to ascertain whether his march would 
be successful or not The smoke having gone up 
f^ainst his breast, he is reported to have exclaimed, 
" This day I shall suffer loss in my men, however 
great that loss may be." Sinclair was accompanied 
by a " Veirl6ber,"-|- or hound ; some called it a " Vter- 
kalv," others a "Vildtyrk" or "Tryntyrk,"{ "able to 



[* The bam ehown in the illustration is now pointed out u Qie place 
where the Boldiera Blept, while Sinclair is said to have passed the night at 
t*e cottage depicted at p. 98.— T. M.] 

(+ Liteiallf, seeut-ninner.— T. M.] 

[I A " wild Tnrk " or " snouted Turk."— T. M.] 



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NORWEGIAir TRADITIONS. ■ 97 

detect the enemy like a hound." It could, they said, 
scent " Christian blood." It ia likewise related that 
the thick part of its legs had been removed in order 
that it might run with gteater lightness. The Teir- 
JZber was shot the same morning at the farm of Ode- 
gaard. An elderly farm labourer had remained there 
in order to see what the enemy would do, and hid 
himself with his steel-bow in a £eld of hemp ; and 
another, who had likewise remained behind, got into 
a chimney to give the signal to the archer. After 
drinking some aour milk in the dairy, the hound 
came up to them. It is said that the sour milk, 
tt^ether with the ametl of the hemp, prevented the 
nose of the Veirlober from discovering the man who 
was concealed, and whose unerring shot stretched him 
on the ground, so that the sour milk " spouted out of 
him." A similar Vildtyrk, as already stated, had 
been shot in Bomsdalen. The Saga says it was for^ 
tunate for the Bonder that these Vildtyrker had been 
shot, for they were dangerous spies. It is probable 
that they were nothing more than Sinclair's sleuth- 
hounds. This is to be inferred both from the descrip- 
tions given and from statements respecting the one 
that was shot at Odegaard — namely, that he ran 
about in the fields and barked. 



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98 NORWEGIAN TRADITIONS. 

The Scots then advanced from Sel. It was on the 
26th August 1612* a day which has remained so 
memorable in the history o£ Gudbrandsdal. It waa a 
Wednesday. To the strains of martial music the 
whole of the Scottish force marched southwards. 
Some of them hearing the cries of children on the 
mountains, to which the mothers had fled, are said 
to have called out in derision, " Hear the witch-cats 
how they screech ; when we come again we shall 
visit them." But soon their mockery was to be 
silenced, and their music to sound for the last time ; 
and the young blood now flowing in their veins was 
in a few moments to stain the rocky sides of Krin- 
glen and the gray waters of the Laagen. Step by 
step they approached the spot where this expedition 
was to end so quickly and sadly. The Bonder at 
Kringlen were waiting for them. Here, on con- 
venient places above the road, they had raised huge 
breastworks, and a kind of trap of stones and timber. 
The trap was laid on logs held t<^ether by means of 
lope, and propped up with supports in such a manner 
that when the ropes were cut and the props removed, 

* Kruse, in hU Report, given the 2Gth August, which was aUo the date i>n 
the iiiscri]iti(in (see SUaRe) on the more ancient poet at Kringlen, which was 
destroyed by the flood in 1789, and in place of which the present post was 
raised, on which the inscription incorrectly girca the date of the 34th August. 



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SORWEQIAN TRADITIONS. 99 

the logs and atones would roll down the whole hill- 
slope* The object waa to let the mass fall down as 
soon as the enemy got below it, and thereupon to 
attack the survivors with weapons in hand. The 
whole of the construction of stones and logs, as 
well aa the Bonder, who stationed themaelvea be- 
hind that awful barricade, were concealed by leafy 
branches of trees and by fir trees, so aa to give the 
appearance of a small wood. A small body of 
Bonder concealed themselves a little to the north, and 
on hearing the noise of the conflict were to have 
descended into the road, to prevent the enemy from 
running back. The Bonder alao cut down large trees, 
and made chevaux-de-frise out of them, to be rolled 
in the front and in the rear of the enemy along the 
narrow road, in order to ahut him in and prevent him 
from going either forwards or backwards. 

In a ballad older than Edvard Storm's poem, un- 
doubtedly composed by a Gudbrandsdal man, and of 
which there are a few imperfect copies, the poaition of 
the Bonder is thus described : — 

" There U a cliff in Gudbrandadal, 
Which is called Kringlon ; 
There lay the men of the vnllef. 
In aU near five hundred. 

" The mode of attack thua c. 



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100 JfORWSaiAlT TRAmnONS. 

Intrenching there, they built a wall, 
And nuwd up itonea many. 
They Uy in wait u doth • mt 
That wants to catch a moiue." 

In order to be informed how near the Scots had 
come, and thus to determine when to expect them, 
they sent out, says the Saga, as a spy, a Bonde of 
the name of Audon Skjenna' of SeL He went direct 
to Skjenna farm, and saw Sinclair reviewing his men 
on the green outside that farm. When he saw them 
afterwards passing over Is-ur Bridge, which spans 
the Laagen immediately to the north of the Ulen 
river, he hastened back. The Scots, however, got 
sight of him, and are said to have called out, "See 
how the boor is running away on a ' pert,"'f It was 
necessary for the Bonder to divert the attention of 
the Scots from their ambuscade, and to ascertain 
when the main force of the enemy was below it, for 
that would be the time for them to begin the battla 
With the latter object one of the Bonder was ordered 
to remain on an island called Storoen, in the Laagen ; 
and then riding on a white horse out of gunshot of 
the enemy, he was to keep in a line with the 

* There is still a farm called Skjenna, a little north of Sel church, but 
Uiere ia no farm of that name in Gram's Cenaua. 

+ Boor, the English for Bonde ; and " pert" is a Scotch word mean- 
ing horse. [Se, Q- yertfjf f— T. M.] 



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NORWEOIAN TBADITI0S8. 101 

enemy's main force, or with the head of it, and when 
it reached the appointed place to give notice by sud- 
denly turning round. Some say that, in order the 
better to divert the enemy's attention, he sat hack- 
wards on the horse ; while others affirm that, with 
the same object, he wound a large red plaid round 
his throat and down the chest of his white horse. 
Other arrangements were also made to divert the 
enemy's attention. On the advice of Arae Nedre- 
Gunstad from Eingebo,* the least capable of the men 
who had met there were stationed on StorSen, in 
order to deceive the enemy by a feint attack, and 
thereby to draw oflF his attention from the place 
where lay the real force of the Bonder. They further 
sent a gir] of the name of Guri, generally called 
Pillar Guri, who knew well how to blow a hom,-f- to 
stand on Selsjordskampen, a mountain point on the 
left side of the Laagen, from which she could see the 
surrounding country and the approaching enemy. 
When the main force of the enemy got between her 
and the place selected by the Bonder she was to 
blow the horn, to attract the attention of the enemy 

* HjorthSi'a deBcription, part ii., p. 135. There is no Ame Ounst^ 
io Gram's Census, but the nsmea of Joen and OluH OunBtod, tenants, 
are mentioned. AiTie may have been the son of one of these. 

t The horn die used was a cow or beat horn, ynth five or eight holes in it. 



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lOS yoRWBOIAS TRADITIONS. 

towards the point at wbich she was placed, and 
which was opposite to the position occupied by the 
Bonder ; and also to signal to the Bonder, who could 
not see the enemy from their ambuscade, how far 
they had advanced. It is also related that, likewise 
by arrangement with the Bonder, she held hanging 
down in front of her a long white scarf, which she 
twisted round her arm, and by gradually shortening it 
signalled to the Bonder the approach of the enemy. 

Now came the Scots. Their advanced guard of 
sixty, according to others one hundred, men, who 
marched a little ahead, passed uuattacked. The girl 
on the mountain top did not blow her horn, but 
waited for the main body. It is strange that the 
advanced guard observed nothing of the Bonder. 
After that came the main force of the Scots ; but 
the Bonder remained quiet, each ready at his post 
Among them was also Berdon or Bardum Sejelatad 
of Ringebb,* who, together with two other skilful 
marksmen, was one of the leaders chosen to take aim 
at Sinclair ; and Berdon had stipulated that no one 



• Hjorth6i, as weU aa tradition, calls him Berdon ; in Gr&m'a OensuB 
the name is written Berdun, and in Christian the I'ourth's Deed of Gift 
Bardum ; which various appellations are undoubtedly Bynonj^nona and 
only a variation produced by time and by the gTiX''uftl comiplJon of the 
ancient name of Baord, Bard. 



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NORWEGIAN TRADITIONS. 103 

should shoot before he did. The Scots thought that 
the Bonder force was further in advance of them, 
and expecting no attack there, approached reliantly, 
and were " cheerful." As soon as they came suf- 
ficiently near, they heard the girl play on the horn 
from the mountain-top. The Scots stopped and 
listened to the unusual and melancholy strains. Sin- 
clair's hand thereupon replied to her with a march. 
The girt played the same air again, and the Scots 
replied a second time.* After that began the attack 
from the island. Many shots were fired, hut no 
bullet reached so far. A volley and then several 
volleys were fired, but with the same result ; and the 
Scots laughed at what they thought was a cowardly 
attack, and in derision lifted their hats after each 
discharge. But suddenly the signal was given to the 
concealed Bonder, and the scene changed. The masses 
of rock and timber now tumbled down, and at the same 
moment Sinclair fell at the first shot that was fired. 

' Both Qtiri's ur and the Scots' march are bUU played by the muaiciaoi 
of the district, but they hava probably been much ftlterod, eepecially the 
latter. They are both attached to this treatiee, set for the piano. It ma; 
be thatKome of the original not«8 will be found in " Sinclair's March," and 
pouibl; the true " Sinclair March " may be found in Scotland ; for it ia 
credible that Colonel Sinclair made u>e of the pipe music of the Sincl^ 
clan, and although the clang have long been broken np, there are still a 
great nomber of pipers over the whole of the north part of Scotland who 
knov well all the old melodies, and tranemit tliem from generation to 
genaratioii. 



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104 SOBWKGIAlf TRADITIONS. 

Berdon SejelsUd had taken aim at him from behind 
some pine trees ; and as Sinclair was considered to be 
a mighty and brave warrior, invulnerable to bullets, 
Berdon, in order, as he thought, to be more certain of 
success, took the silver button from the neck of his 
shirt, chewed it into a lump, and loaded his gun with 



OUBI'S BONO. 




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IfUSWEOIAS TRADITIONS. 106 

it.* Some say alao that the gun missed fire the first 
time. The bullet is said to have struck Sinclair in the 

' The BQperstitdon that men of extraordinary valour can render them- 
selves invulnerable, and that leaden bnllata were of no use agamat them, 
but that silver was eesentJol, is qtill extant, and ia or was cominaa in 
many other countries. [See " Tales of a Grandfather" for the death of 
Dundee, shot with a silver bullet^,and " Old Mortality," for further refer- 
ence to this superstition. — T. M.] 



SINCLAIB MABCH. 




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106 NORWEOtAfi TRADITIONS. 

forehead, just over his left eye. As he felt he is said 
to have exclaimed, " That ia Berdon Sejelstad's arque- 
buse."* The place where he fell ia still called " Sin- 
elar's Dokken." Immediately after the colonel had 
fallen it went badly with the rest ; and the Bonder 
threw themselves forward with courage and speed, 
spreading fear and death by shooting with rifles and 
hewing with axes. The position of the Scots was 
bad in the highest degree ; for the narrow pass in 
which they were crowded, and the declivity of the 
mountain on which they stood, admitted of no battle- 
array. From north and south, and from above them, 
the Bonder fell upon the Scots with fury. The above- 
mentioned ballad says : — 



' ' They wara suiroimded nonth and north — 
Which they must moat have r^retted -. 
Thero was couuuitted upon them a, nusentble murdu'."— 



They attempted to run up the mountain to close 
with the Bonder, but were hurled down. " Those 
who were not shot jumped into the river to save 
themselves, but were there drowned ; and those of 



* Hai/e or HagcblfMe, in Norwegian (Baken or Makenrohr, in German), 
WHS the Gret gun that replaced the bov or crosabow. — C. J. Chr. B«rg on 
the " Land Defences," p. 252. 



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JfORWEQIAN TRADITIONS. 107 

them who got alive over the river were quickly killed 
by the Bonder on that side."* 

In the " Ballad of the Valley " the battle is furtiier 
described aa follows : — 

" The colonel rode in the foremost rank, 
Ri^ht proudly hiniHelf he bore ; 

And became at once quite powerless- 
He died and there at once on the epot 

With uthers at that time ; 
Georgiua Sinclar was his name, 

Wlio then was stretched a corpse. 

" There staggered many a, brave hero, 
And danced og&inat his will ; 
Horse and man to earth were felled, 
That is how the Dalesmen entartained them. 

" The balk as thick as hul did fly, 

lileii had to atop there and Mde ; 
There was heard many a shout and cry. 

Yes, there ached many a side. 
There was sweated much bloody sweat, 

Many a cheek was whit« 

" They tried to climb the mount^n steep. 

The Noraemea death to deal ; 
But from the rocks were forced to leap 

By Ic^ and stones and steel. 
Hard by the precipice there runs a pver. 

Its waters run lo strong 
That all who cannot reach the bank 

Are borne by the stream along. 

" They swam both hither and thither. 
On their backs or as best they could ; 
Tliat art they had diligently learnt ; 
But they bad to go to the bottom. 



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108 NORWEGIAN TRADITIONS. 

They wera fired at right sharply, 

So the water spluhed abnut their bus 1 

They hod to renmia on th&t spot, 
And reached not the dry land." 

The girl on the mountain crag continued to play her 
horn during the battle, until she saw the Laagen dyed 
with blood. She then threw the horn over her head, 
went away, and changed her song into weeping. Some 
say that Sinclair's wife was also killed in the fight, to- 
gether with her child. According to tradition, when the 
rest went to battle, Kjel Fjerdingreen * of Hedalen, a 
parish annexed to Vaage, was persuaded by his sweet- 
heart, who had a foreboding of misfortune, to remain 
behind ; but when she heard that Sinclair's wife was 
with him, and that she carried a new-bom babe, she be- 
came anxious about her fate, and as much or she had 
previously bid him remain behind, she now bade him go, 
not to take part in the carnage, but, if possible, to save 
the child. " You shall not gain my hand, Kjel," she ia 
said to have told him, " before you have saved the child," 
He therefore accompanied the others. In the tumult 
of the battle, Kjel rushed forward in order to comply 
with the touching entreaties of his sweetheart. The 
child had just been hit by a ball. Kjel found Mrs. 
Sinclair, who was beside herself with grief, on horse- 
* The aaias ia to be found in Gram's Census. 



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ff^OBWEGIAlf TRADITIONS. 109 

back, and stanching the blood of her child. As he 
was going to take it (others say that it had fallen 
from her, 8he having dropped it in her fright, and 
that Kjel took it up and handed it to her), she thought 
he wanted to injure it, and impelled by fear and 
motherly affection she thrust a d^ger into her bene- 
factor's breast. Others say she stuck the dagger into 
his back as he was stooping to take the child. It is 
said that one of Kjel's companions then shot Mrs. 
Sinclair down from her horse, and that her body 
was afterwards seen in the Laagen. It is stated by 
others that the Bonder threw her into the Laf^en, 
taking her for a witch, and that she sat (on the 
water) stanching the blood of her child, and that the 
Laagen bore her a long way before she was drowned. 
When the child was killed, and before Mrs. Sinclair 
fell a prey to the waves, she is said to have struck «p 
a wild song in her despair, — others say in her scorn. 
The place where she remained for some moments on 
the surface of the water is said to have heen imme- 
diately opposite to the most northerly point of Kringlen. 
Others again say that she was afterwards amongst the 
prisonei-s, and that her life was spared. The inscription 
in the parish register of Vaage* states that she survived. 
• IMade in 1731. See p. 77.— T. M.] 



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no NORWBOIiN TRADITIONS. 

The battle probably took place from a little north 
of that point to a little south of the highest part of 
Kringlen, where the wooden post stands. According 
to Exnse's Keport, it lasted an hour and a half. As 
soon aa the battle was over and the victory gained, the 
Bonder went after the men of the vanguard, whom 
they had allowed to pass unhindered. These had 
fled forward when they perceived the defeat of the 
rest ; but they were overtaken on a plain at Solhjem 
farm, a little to the south of Kringlen. As the 
Bonder came rushing to the attack with the cry, 
" Fall to ! fall to ! here are more of them," and the 
Scots saw " what would result from it," they at once 
sent their interpreter Forward and said they would 
surrender as prisoners. Thereupon they laid dovm 
their arms ; but when they saw that the Bonder were 
not so many as they had at first thought, they took 
their arms up again and wanted to fight their way 
through ; but they were now met in such a manner 
that they were all either shot and cut down or taken 
prisoners. Feder ElognseS; the guide was with the 
vanguard, and nearly shared its fate ; but on the cry, 
" I am Feder EloguEes, I am Feder Klogntes, and am 
one of your own people," he escaped, and returned 
later in safety to his home in HomsdaleiL 



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NORWEGIAN TRADITIONS. Ill 

The strength of the Bonder force which fought at 
Kringlen was between four hundred and five hundred 
men,* of whom six were killed and some few wounded. 
According to the ballad — 

" When the Dalesmen thu had dime. 

And thus destrojad the foe, 

I have been told of a truth 

That eix of them were killed 

In the battle on the cliff ; 

And there were stretched kb corpsea. 

Beside those who wounded were. 

Who are but few ti 



The Bonder proceeded at once with the prisoners 
to Qvam, a parish annexed to Froen. After the glory 
just acquired, the Bonder committed next day a san- 
guinary deed, which the inhabitants of the valley 
now speak of with abhorrence, wishing it had never 
been done. " The principal men among those who 
were there " wished indeed that the prisoners, whom 
they had confined in a bam at Klomstad farm, should 
all be conveyed to Agershuus. 

" But this pleased Dot the Dalesmen 
That the; should thus take them 
Through thB long and narrow way. 
And give the country trouble. " 

* In his Report Knue says they were "four hundred and five men 
strong." In the " Ballad of the Valley" {see ante) they &re stated at 
about five hundred men ; and therefore the estimate of three hundred 
men given in the inscription on the post over Sindair's grave appears to 



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in NORWEOIAS TRADITIONS. 

The majority shouted that the prisoners should all 
lose their lives, on which, so strong was the general 
exasperation, they took them out of the bam,* one by 
one, and shot them all, except eighteen or some few 
more. Five or six whom, owing, it is said, to " ma^c 
art," the shots would not affect, were put to death with 
pikes. The " Ballad of the Valley " says : — 

" They minded neither le>d nor powder, 
It dried upon their brows ; 
So tough van their flesh sod tlieir skin 
That lead conld not through them go. 
Through cunning Mid magic tit, 
Which tliey learned to a nicety. 
What vaa done to tbem was in vain,^ 
They did not even hiccoi^h ; 
So {the Bonder) took ti> their sharp pikes, 
And had to run them throu^ ; 
Then both ukin and fleeh were torn, 
And they made an end oE them. 
But of the prisoners there were spared, 
I know, one less than twenty. 
Amongst them were two captains — 
I will not tell a lie — 
The one Captain Bruce by name, 
The other Captain Hamaey." 

Kruse writes re.specting the prisoners : — " On the 
day the battle took place one hundred and thirty-four 
Scots were taken prisoners, who were straightway the 
next day killed and shot by the Bonder, with the ex- 
ception of the above-named eighteen, the Bonder saying 



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NORWEGIAN TRADITIONS. 113 

to each other that his Royal Majesty had enough to feed 
in those same eighteen. Some of these were, however, 
wounded, and some had bullets in their bodies when 
they arrived here.* Of the above-mentioned eighteen 
soldiers we now send to youf the three principal 
ones, who are a captain of the name of Alexander Kam- 
say, and his lieutenant of the name of Jacob Manne- 
penge [James Moneypenny], who has previously been 
both in Denmark and Sweden, and who on this their 
expedition served as an interpreter ; the third is called 
Herricb Bryssz [Henry Bruce], who, according to his 
own statement, has served as a soldier in Holland, 
Spain, and Hungary. As regards the remaining fifteen 
persons, some of them have straightway taken service 
among good folk here in the country, and some who 
will willingly serve your Eoyal Majesty in Jorgen 
Lunge's J regiment, I sent at once to Elfsboi^." This 
is alluded to as follows in the Valley Ballad : — 

" Thef were then to the castle brought. 

No desire had they to rBmiiii 

They could not reliab the fsxe bo hard 
Which the GudbrandBdal men gave— 
Here are not many hena or sheep — 
But lead and powder they got in their insides, " 

* At Agerehutu Caetle (the fort of ChrietianJa). 
t That ia, to DenoiBrk. 

X That is, take Danish military service. Joi^u Lunge was a Danish 
itoblemaD, who was at that time in command of the Castle of Bohuoa. 



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114 SORWEQIAlf TSADlTIOlfS. 

That at least eighteen remained alive can thus be 
seen from Eruse's Report, and, moreover, that some 
£ew remained behind in the valley is recorded by 
tradition. Storm sings that none of the Scots ever 
saw their own country again. Nevertheless it is re- 
lated of at least one of them that "he came home."* 
The place in Qvam parish where the Scots killed at 
the bam were buried, is still shown a little to the 
north of the barn, and is called Skothaugen (" The 
Scot hillock "). 

The conduct of the Bonder towards their prisoners 
can certainly not in any way be justified; but so long 
as there is much that can be pleaded in extenuation, 
we should, on the other hand, be cautious in pronounc- 
ing an unqualified condemnation. According to tra- 
dition, they were excited to that deed by Peder 



* SlaD^ relates that ^'they were all shot and cut down except two.^' 
But in this renpect he merita leae credence than Kruse or the Sagaa 
Slange asya also that "one of the prisoners waa a glazier, who eatablished 
himself in Norwa; and died there; while the other was sent to Scotland." 
This ia also related in the Sagas ; bat that the latter was sent home " to 
tell his countrymen bnw it happened," ia doubtieaa an addition made by 
Slange himaelf. To illustrate in bow distorted a manner many of the 
later hiatoriana describe the incident at Kringlen, it may be mentioned 
as an example, among several others, that Fred. SneedorS, in hie 
lectvirea on the "Hiatorj of the Fatherland," vol. ii., p. lOG, and later 
even, WerlanB in the fourth edition, p. 191, of Munthe'a "Pictures of 
Life," which he edited, perverted the account given by Slange to the 
effect that "one of the Scots established himself in the Country as a 
(]Jiiiier,"by stating that he "eatablished glass-worlte in Norway." 



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NORWEGIAN TRADITIONS. 115 

Klognses, who had seen so many cruelties committed 
by the Scots on the way, and who had himself suffered 
BO much at their hands. It can be imagined that the 
real state of the case was possibly this ; the Bonder, 
weary after a march of several days, and after the 
last day's work and fighting, came to Qvam with 
their prisoners, when they began, it may be supposed, 
to be weary of leading them further. It was the 
busy harvest time ; they were possibly short of pro- 
visions. Perhaps some of them had a debauch, as 
previously at Sel, and excited by liquor as well as by 
the account of the cruelties of the Scots, they con- 
sidered the latter worthy of death, and quickly set to 
work to slaughter them, notwithstanding that the 
principal men had opposed such a proceeding. {See 
ante.) It may be that the prisoners themselves had 
given them ftesh cause for exasperation during their 
conveyance or while they were being guarded ; and 
such a supposition is all the more within the range 
of possibility, since it is otherwise very singular that 
the Bonder did not kill their prisoners immediately 
after the affair at Solhjem (since their exasperation 
was so great on the following day), but conducted 
them one mile and a half (Norwegian) on the way 
to Agershuus. 



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116 IfOSWEOIAN TRADITIONS. 

Special circumstances, no longer known, may have 
occurred as contributory reasons for such conduct. 
Moreover, before pronouncing judgment on the in- 
habitants of Gudbrandsdal, we must remember that 
wars at that time, and the Calmar War as a whole, 
were conducted with much cruelty, and we must 
take into consideration the spirit of the ^e. Nor 
should we forget that more than two centuries lie 
between them and us. A far higher st^e of culture 
has been attained of later years, and yet they have 
produced not a few examples of similar barbarity. 
We have only to remember what is related respecting 
the cruelty of the Duke of Cumberland in 1746 after 
the battle of Culloden in Scotland, General Moreno's 
murder of General Torrejos and his sixty comrades in 
misfortune on the plains before Malaga in 1832, 
General Minas's cruelty at Lacaroz in 1835, and the 
cruelties of the Oarlists towards the English prisoners 
at Tolosa in 1837, etc. 

Respecting one of the Scottish prisoners who re- 
mained alive, tradition relates that when he saw a 
musket being aimed at him he ran to Ingebrikt 
Valde* of Vaage, and with pitiful gesticulations asked 

" Hjorthiii calU him Ingebrikt SSrvold, but neither that name nor that 
of Ingebrikt Vftlde io to bo found in Gram's Censos. On the other hand, 
Oluff and Knud Vslde are mentioned as tenants. 



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NORWBOIAN TBADITIOSa. 117 

for life and protection, seeking shelter under his 
horse ; whereupon Ingebrikt lifted his axe in de- 
fence of the man, threatening to cut down any one 
who killed him. That Scot is said to have been a 
glazier, and to have subsequently settled in the 
country. As a token of his gratitude he sent some 
windows to Ingebrikt Valde, whom in his letters he 
always called his " life's father." Of these windows 
one is still to be seen at Valde farm* Some lines, 
burnt into one of the panes, form a shield, on which 
are seen a figure like a crest (perhaps Ingebrikt 
Valde's seal or signature) and an ajigel with hands 
held proteetingly over it. Another of the prisoners 
remained in Vaage, where he got a piece of land to 
cultivate, and which clearing is now a farm called 
Skotlien. 

Either at the engagement at Ki-inglen or during the 
affair at Solhjem one of the Scots b said to have saved 
himself by swimming over the Laagen, whence he took 
to the mountains. In the evening (the moimtains 
being only a Norwegian mile across) he came down to 
EUingsbo farm in Hedalen, and his appearance bespoke 
fright and hunger. The farmer, who, according to 

* [DisooTered there in ISS.'f, and purchaeed by the author of this work, 
who hM deposited it in the Anglican Church at ChriBtiniiia for presecva- 
Uon.— T. M.] 



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118 NORWEGIAN TRADITIONS. 

Gram's Census, was called Christian, placed food before 
him. While the Scot sat and ate the mowers came 
home. At the sight of those men and their scythes 
he thought they were some of those who had been 
at Kringlen, so he jumped up and showed signs of 
fear lest his life should be taken ; but the Bonde 
soon quieted him. The Scot remained there four 
years, went to Oslo,* where he settled as a goldsmith, 
and sent as a present to his benefactor at Ellingsbo 
silver cups for his chUdren. 

From one of the prisonera, who is said to have 
been a cardmaker, and who married in the country, a 
family with the surname of Matheson is de.'wended, 
and several of its members still reside in the province 
of Trondhjem.f 

Among the prisoners was also a woman, whom Lars 
Hage afterwards met at the house of a merchant at 
Oslo. He recognized her, and she him. The merchant 
told her to draw a jug of ale for the man. But as he 
would not drink, she said, " Drink, good man, I have 
done you no harm ;" and the merchant having asked 
her, " Do you know to whom you are offering that 
good ale ? " she replied, " I know him well enough, 

le IJme after 1612.— T. M.] 



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IfORWEOIAN TBADlTIOJfS. 116 

They were not ' boors,' but devils, that lay in the 
bushes." * 

A prisoner who had been quartered at Veikle farm 
in Qvam parish, and who had been well treated, sent 
later, says tradition, " when he got home," six silver 
spoons to the farmer.f as a token of remembrance. 
Respecting two other prisoners, one of whom was at a 
farm in Qvam, the other at a farm in Sel, it is related 
that they were shot the same autumn, " as the pro- 
prietors did not find it would pay them to feed them 
over the winter." Another of the prisoners is said to 
have been killed at Vaage. The farmer with whom he 
lived took him on a journey into the woods. On the 
way, it is said, they began to talk about the battle at 
Kringlen. The prisoner having said that if the Scots had 
known about theBonder as much as the latter had known 
of them matters would have turned out differently, the 
farmer got angry and cut his prisoner down on the spot. 

It is related of the Bonder from Vaage that on the 
return homewards they met at Kalsteen, in Vaage, a 
portion of the men of Lom who intended to encounter 
the Scots. An argument arose between the men of 

* [This phrue bears a suspiciou 
3aga (loeUnd) :— " Let tu fly now; we h 
withfianda."— T. M.] 

+ He U called Otter in Gram's CenBus. 



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1» yOBWEalAS T&ADITIOWS. 

Vaage, proud of victory, and thase of Lorn, and a 
bloody battle very nearly ensued, but it was pre- 
vented by individual representations. A certain Feder 
Killie* of Dovre is reported to have said on his return 
home from the battle that he thanked God he had not 
tired a shot at the Scots ; but when another Bonde, 
his neighbour, heaixl this, he became angry, quickly 
cockc<l his gun to shoot him, and would have killed 
him had not others intervened and prevented him. 

A man called Jijrgen Fjerdingreenf of Hedalen is 
said to have got possession of Sinclair's money-chest 
(or holster), and was carrying it home on a pack-horse. 
At Breden farm he went inside to enjoy himself ; but 
spending a long time over his dinner, the holster, which 
he bad left outside, was carried away.| This has given 
lise to the saying, which, however, is not very general, 
" to dine like Jorgen." 

Sinclair's body was carried to Qvam and there buried 
just outside the church -yard, as the exasperated 
Bonder would not allow him to lie in consecrated 
ground. It is told that one of his relatives thought 
he had not been killed, but only taken prisoner, and 

* Tfae name also occurs in Gram's Ceiuua. 
t No one of that nunc U mentidoed in Grain's Census. 
J [The identical money -holster is now in the possession of Mr. J. Heftya. 
See Ulustration at p. 118.— T. AL] 



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NORWEOIAN TRADITIONS. 131 

therefore came to Norway in search of him, but found 
only his grave. A simple wooden post close to the 
road, a little to the south of the church,* shows to 
this day where he lies buried. A board with the fol- 
lowing inscription is fastened to the post : — 

-I- 

iSpitttphinm. 

Here below resta 

Mr. Colonel Geobqe JiiBOBN Sineler, 

Who fell at Kringlene, 

In the year 1613, with a force of 900 Scots, 

' Who were crashed like eaiiJien pots 

By a mialler number of 300 B&nder 

Of Lesg&e, Waage, Froen ; and the 

Leader of the Bonder was Berdon 

Sejelatad of Ringeboe Parish.f 

On the Spot where Sinclair and his Scots fell, a 
monument wafi also raised in commemoration of the 

* Id 1612 the church etood nearer to the post, but it wan later removed, 
owing to the encroachmentH of the river. At that time also the old church- 
318111 at Qvam ceased to be used. 

[When the present highroad was constructed the post was replaced by 
a lai^ stone slab, inscribed :— 

Here wss the Leader of the Scots, 

GEOBSE SlHOLAlB, 

Buried after he bad fallen at Eringelen, the 
26th August 1612.— T. M,) 

f ^Hiia post was Bet up in 17f)9 by a couple of Bonder after mi older one 
had been destroyed by the inundation.— N, H. C. Blodi'i " Observations 
on a Journey from Trondhjeni to Cbristiania, in 1806," p. 2S. 

[The tablet is now in the possession ot Mr. J. Heftye. An mnstra- 
tion of it is given here.— T. M.] 



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IM yORWMOIAN TJUDITIOSa. 

event. In lieu of the stone pillar which, according to 
Slange, had the inscription, " Here was Colonel Geoi^ 
Sinclair shot the 2Cth August, anno 1612," the pres- 
ent post was raised in 1733, on the occasion of King 
Christian the Sixth's journey to Trondhjem. The 
monument, which stands under the shadow of a birch 
tree on the top of the hill beside the road, and a few 
paces to the south of the spot where Sinclair was shot, 
is in the form of a simple wooden cross, with a board 
on which the inscription is as follows : — 

" Courage, loyalty, bravery, and all that gives honour. 
The whole world 'midat Norwe^n rockB c^n leam. 
Ad eiuople ia thare seen of Buch btsverj, 
Among the rocka in the North, on thia very apot : 
A f uUy-umed corpe of some hundred Soots 
Was here crushed like euUien pots ; 
They found that bravery, with loyalty and oourage. 
Lived in full glow in the breasts of the men of Gudtuandsdal. 
Jorgeo' voD Zinclur.f as the leader of the Scots, 
Thought within himself, * No one will here meddle with me," 
But, lo ! a amall number of Bonder con&onted him, 
Who bore to him Ileath'a messai^ by powder and by ball. 
Our northern monarch, King Chriatiaii the Sixth, 
To honour on his way,]: we have erected thia ; 
For him we are ready to risk our blond and life. 
Until our breath goes out and our bodies lie Stiff." 

• "1612, the 24th Aupiat." 

f " 900 Scots were beaten here by an inferior force of 300 BSnder from 
Leaao, Vaage, Froen, and Ringebo pariahes." 

% " When, in July (the Ifith) 1733, the Mi^ was graciously pleased to 
travel post this place to Trondhjem." 

The man; inaccuracies in this inscription will be seen from what has 
been written above. The inscription is also printed in KjerulTs Journal 
of Christian the Sirth'a joumey in Norway, 1733, p. 40; in Bing'e "Nor- 



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ifORWEOIAlf TRADITIONS. 123 

Yet another post in commemoration of the battle 
was set up by a private individual in the year 1826, 
a little to the north of Kiinglen, at the farm of Plad- 
sen or Soudre (South) Krioglen, It is about five feet 
high, of soapstone, and in the form of an obelisk sur- 
mounted by a ball. This monument will be set up in 
a more appropriate place when the road is aJtered.* 
The inscription on it will only be in these words, 
"The 26th August 1G12." 

The origin of the plant called cow-bane or water 
hemlock-f* {Cicuta virosa 8. aqiiatica), which is very 
poisonous, and which grows in great quantities in a 
marsh at Nordre (North) Sel, dates, according to 
tradition, from the time of the Scots. It is said the 
Scots sowed that herb ; but that this has only been 
attributed to them out of hatred need scarcely be 
added. On an islet opposite Kringlen stood, until the 
great flood of 1789, a large 6r tree, in the trunk of 

get Beskr" (Deecriptioii of Norway), p. 348; in Hjorthoi's " Description 
ofOudbraDd«lalen,"p>rtu„pp.33,34; andiii"BudBtiltkeD,"1821, p.Ul. 
In Edvard Storm's collected poenu (Oopanhsgen, 1786), the poat ia en- 
graved on the title-pBgs. The first two lines of the inscription are by 
the celebrated poet Bishop Kingo, snd are to be found on the so-called 
Bfittdalert (journey dollars) which King Frederick IV. caused to be dis- 
tributed on his journey through Norway in 1T04. 

* [It now stands over the present road. See illustration. — T. M.] 
t A detuled description of the eotc-bane is given in Pontoppidan's 
" Natural History of Norway," part i., pp. 200-201 ; from Hjorthiil, part 

:., p. o& 



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124 yOBWEOIAS TRADITIONS. 

which some inuaket balls, as well as many traces of 
them, were to be found, and some years ago human 
bones were found where the wooden cross now stands. 
Various weapons and other things still remain after 
the Scots in many parts of the valley. Thus at the 
farm of Mtelum in Bredebygd is a drum, which is 
called the " Scots' drum." It was brought thirty or 
forty years ago from Ringebo, where it was likewise 
known under the same name.* At Nordre Bne farm 
are a musket and a sword which belonged to the 
Scots. At the farm of Soudre Kringlen or Pladsen a 
spur and a knife were foimd a short time ago on the 
hill where the battle took place. In the parish of 
Vaa^, at Lunde farm, is a dirk which had belonged 
to the Scots. There is also a dirk at Kruke farm 
in Hedalen, and this is said to be the one with which 
Mrs. Sinclair stabbed Kjel Fjerdingreen, According 
to an English traveller who has seen them, these dirks 
are similar to those still carried by a regiment in 
Scotland which is armed in the old .style. At Fjer- 
dingreen farm is a purse made of steel-wire rings, also 
a large and a small powder-horn, which are said to 
have belonged to Colonel Sinclair. In the parish of 
Bovre, at the farm of Odegaarden, is preserved a chest 
'[The frame r>t this drum is in the possesuoD of Mr. J. Heftye. — T. M.] 



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NOBWEOIAS TRADITIONS. 125 

bound with iron, which is said to have been Sinclair's 
money-chest, as well as a large and a small powder-horn, 
also repoi-ted to have belonged to him. There is like- 
wise a powder-horn at the farm of Sonstebo, in the 
parish of Lsesso. Among the things that belonged to 
Sinclair, Peder Klognffis is said to have got a pair of 
snuffers, which he took home with him, and which 
are said to be still preserved at Mandalen farm in 
Romsdalen, In the Armoury of the fortress of Agers- 
huus* are preserved musketsf which had belonged to 
the Scots. In the Museum at Bergen are the stock of 
a pistol and a powder-horn, and in the Museum of the 
University of Christiania the stock of a pistol inlaid 
with ivory — all relics of the Scots. Sinclair's pistols 
are kept in the Museum at Copenhagen. They are 
described as follows in the catalogue of the Museum : — 
" The locks have pans of the so-called Spanbh kind, 
but amongst the oldest of those patterns the barrels 
are of brass. On them are engraved the Scottish thistle 
and the letters A, S, In the year 1690 Lieutenant- 
General Johan Wibe sent those pistols to King 
Christian V.,' with the observation that they had 
belonged to the " Scotch Colonel George Sinclair, who 



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126 yoBWEGIAN TRADITIONS 

in the year 1612 fell with his Scots in Gudbrandfi- 
dftlen."* 



* If indeed theiie piatols really beloD(fed tu Sinclair, the above initials 
{loniblj point to a family connection between him uid the Danish noble- 
DUm Anders (Andrew) Sinclar, who in 1607 emigrated from Scotland to 
Denmark, where his race died out at the end of the seventeenth century. 
Moreover, perwina of that name lived in Norway a couple of centuries 
before the arrival of George Sinclur : thus David Sinclar is named aa a 
civil ofiBcer of high rank at Bergen in 141G ; and Anden Sinclar as a chief 
oommaoder in Bohuus Castle from 1461 to 1464 ; and Aaseline, daughter 
of Heury Sinclar of Sanneberg, who was married to Anders van Bergen 
of Onerheim farm in Sondhordlohn, who at the close of the fifteenth 
century was a Norw^ian Councillor of State (" Samlinger til det Norake 
Folksprog og Historie," vol. iii, p. 6T6|. In addition to a Captain 
Sinclar, who is named in 164IS, there is also mention, aa being in this coun- 
try in the seventeenth century, of one David Sinclar, who was on the 
2iid August 1669 appointed by Kii^ Frederick IIL Bailie of Eger or 
Lier, and who held the farm of Sem in £ger as tenant under the Crown ; 
as also a Gre^rs Sinclar, who was undoubtedly related to the Sinclar 
just named, and who in 1688 lived at Vestfossen in I!^er, where in that 
year, at the farm of Hals, he caused copper-works, with a smelting-house 
and stamping-mill, to be erected, but which, after working ansucoessfully 
for four years, he was obliged to abandon. Even at the end of the last 
century persons of the name of Sinclar resided in this country (Kraft's 
"NorgesBeekr,"psrtiL, pp. 406,407; Strihn'a "EgersBeBkE," p. 56; and 
documents in the State Archives and in the Archives of the Municipality 
of Christiania). It would, however, be difficult, in the absence of histor- 
ical information, to decide how far any of the above-mentioned persons 
were related to each other, or whether any of them were descended from 
the noble Scottish family of Sinclair, as there was a whole clan of that 
name in Scotland. The Andrew (Anders) Sinclar above-mentioned may 
have belonged to that family, from which also the various Sw^edish noble 
families of that name are said to hnve derived their origin. Francis (Frants) 
Sinclar was the first of that name who was raised, in 1G49, to the order of 
Swedish knighthood and nobility. (See Stjemman's " Register of Swedish 
Knighthood and Nobility," part L , pp. 426, 616, and 710, and p. 22, part ill. ) 

The Scottish noble family of Sinclair or St. Clair is of Norman origin, 
but it came originally from St. Clair in France, whence William St. 
Claii— a son of Walter. Earl of St. Clair, and Margaret, daughter of 
Richard, Duke of Normandy — emigrated in the twelfth century to Scot- 
land, where he acquired extensive lands in Midlothian. The posses- 



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N0BWE6IAN TRADITIONS. 127 

At the close of the last century, a Count Laurvig 
is said to have owned Sinclair's pistols,* and Coimt G. 

■ions of hie descenduita increaaed considerably uoder ths muiiifioence of 
the Kings of Scotland, eapeciall; during the reign of Robert Bmoe, 
and embraced at last the baroniee of Boalyn, Fsntland, Cowtiland, Cat- 
cune, and others. One of the mine Williua St. Clair'B deicendante in 
a direct line — namely, Henry St. Clair (de Sanoto Claro) — was in 1379 
inade, by King Eakon VI. of Norway, Jarl or Ear! of the Orkney 
lelandB, which were then under the Buzerainty of the kingdom of Nor- 
Vay, and hia family held that dignity until the year 1471, when by an 
Act of Parliament the Orkney IslsndB vera annexed to the Scottish 
Crown, and in compensation for the same, William St. Clair, tlien Earl 
of Orkney and Karl of Caithness, rec^ved from King Jamea III. tbe 
CasUe of RaTeneheuch, of which the mins. still in existence, belong to 
the Earls of Roelyn, who represent a branch of tJte St. Clair family. 
According to Stjemman, the Earl of Orkney {vidt " Catalogue Comitum 
Orcadensium " in the " Orkneyinga Saga," Hamie, 1780) used as his motto 
the word "Fight." As adherents of the House of Stuwt, the St. Clair 
family loet its lands and was obliged to wander in exile. Aa is well 
known, Walter Scott has described the tragical fate of tbe family in the 
sixth canto of his "Lay of the Last Uinstrel." The family lb, however, 
widely spread in Scotland, and tbe noble Swedish family of the same 
name is said to ba descended from the St. Claira of Freewick and Dun- 
heath. Although there is no historical certainty that George Sinclair, 
who foil at Kringlen, was also descended from the noble Scotch familj oiF 
St. Clair, yet it is very probable that snch was the case. 

* [Dean Erag is probably right in doubting the authenticity of the 
"Sinclair pistols" at Copenhagen. The initials on them must be those 
of Anders or "Sir Andrew" Sinclair. Many of his letters to Robert, 
Earl of Salisbury, written between 1607 and 1621, are in the Public 
Record Office, London. In 1G07, while in the serilce of the King of 
Denmark, he received £1,000 from King Jam«s I.; and in 1610 he urged 
Lord Salisbury to send him hia pension, and also to obtain a loan from 
Tfing James, aa he had bought lands in Denmark of the value of forty 
thousand crowns, part of which he still owed. In 1610 he asked Lord 
Salisbury to be godfather and to give his Christian name to a son bom in 
that year, his two elder sons having been named James and Christian. 
In 1611 he was made governor of the castle and town of Calmar. He 
was sent as ambassador to England in 1S2L There was evidently no 
direct connection between him and Geoige Sinclair, wboae deaoent baa 
been well estaUished.— T. M] 

11 



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IM SORWSQIAS TRADITIOSS. 

C. R Tbott his musket, which was for a long period 
preserved in the family of Berdon Sejelstad, who, as 
the slayer of Sinclair, got it as hia hooty. At the 
hogioQlng of the present century Thor Bratt of Tofte 
owned Sinclair's fighting sword, which he gave away 
to be sent to the Art Museum at Copenhagen.* 

Just as Christian IV. punished severely the noble- 
man Steen Bilde and the men of Stordolen and Jemt- 
land for having made no opposition to Colonel Munk- 
haven on hia march through the country to Sweden, 
80 was the conduct of the men of Qudbrandsdal, differ- 
ing as it did from that of the others, not allowed by 
the king to pass unrewarded. By letters-patent, dated 
from the Castle of Fredeiiksborg, September 3, 1613, he 
gave to Lars Hage the farm (Hage) which he occupied, to- 
getiier with the farm of Landnem ; to Feder Bandklev 
the form (Nedre Eandklev) on which he lived, tt^ether 
with the farm of Oandestad ; and to Berdon Sejelstad 
likewise the farm he occupied (Ovre Sejelstad); — "to 
them and their descendants in perpetual possession, for 
their fidelity, diligence, and manline&s in the late war."f 

■ Schasl'B " KrigenB Skueplade " (Seat of War), translated by Thaarup, 
p. 30; Bloch'e " Reiaeagttagelser " (Notea of Traiel), p. 22; and Wilse'a 
"Spjdaberga Benkrivelse," Appendix, p. 68. 

t [Tbe farms hare mentioned belonged at that timeto die Crown, and had 
only been held on leases by the occupiere. Tha deeda of gift by Chria- 
tian IV. are given in esdeato in an Appendii to the Be». H. P. S. Krag'a 
worl[,batithaBnotbeendeenied necessaryto reproduce them here.— T.M.] 



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IfOBWEOIAIf TBADITIONS. 129 

The descendants both of Lars Hage* and of Feder 
Randklev still live ; but the family of Berdon Sejelstad 
is said to have died out, at all events at the farm 
where he lived — namely, Ovre Sejelstad, Gulbrand 
lived at Nedre Sejelstad, and the present occupant of 
the farm is his fifth descendant in a direct line. 

According to Hjorthbi's account (part ii., pp. 7, 135, 
137, and 138), Ame Gunatad, whom he calls the next 
in command of the Bonder (from Bingebo ?), and who, 
according to tradition, distinguished himself by his 
bravery and extraordinary strength, was rewarded by 
the exemption of his farm from the assessment called 
" Foring." The same immunity was granted to Lara 
Hage, Peder Randklev, and Berdon Sejelstad, in re- 
spect of their several farms ; and that freedom from 
taxation is enjoyed by those farms to this day. 

* Inaletter, dated Osteraad,December20,16Sl, and preaerred in the State 
Archives oC Norway, Chancellor Ove Bjelke recDimnendB the Norwegian 
Stadtbolder Iver Krabbe to help a " Peder Eckce, formerly lensmand in 
Dovre," to obtain justice in a certain causa. He writes that he bad "known 
hia father, who waa the man that liad beaten Er. Georgium Sincklar, who 
wanted to lead the Scottish folk through GndbrandsdalBn." In Gram's 
GensuBia named aaatenant at LeBBo, in addition to Lauritz(IiaTB) Hage, aUn 
a Lauritz Eckre ; but it is not improbable that Lara Hage had also the leaae 
of Ekre, and conaeqnentl; the two peiBona would be identical. In the latter 
case, it maji be assomed that Peder Ekre was a eon of Lara Hage, who may 
have inherited the farm of Ekra and the office of lenamand from his father. 
There ia no doubt that Feder £kre is the lenamand of that name who 
(according to Hjorthiji, part ii., p. T) received from the Crown the. farm of 
Hundencea in Lesao for hia "lo^ty and diligence" at the ai^eofTrond- 
hjeininUieyearlSSB; and if thia ia ao, he waa a bnve Bon of a to^ve father. 



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l» NORWEGIAN TRADITIONS. 

According to tradition, Audon or Ingebrikt Skjenna of 
Sel also received as a reward of his bravery the gift 
(^ the farm of Sel, of which the present occupiers are 
said to be his descendants. The girl Guri, says tradi- 
tion, had the farm of Rindal in Vaage, subsequently 
called Pillarvigen, given to her as a recompense. 

The battle at Kringlen* will ever remain a re- 
markable event in our history. It is certainly not 
remarkable on account of the number of the com- 
batants or the m^;nitude of the defeat, but for the 
mavmier in which the enemy was annihilated. It 
was Bonder led only by Bonder who, with presence of 
mind, knew how to select excellent ground, utilized it 
with sagacity to carry out in harmony a plan of attack 
that had been decided upon, and who fell with such 
courage on a superior enemy. Moreover, the event will 
serve to increase the series of examples which history 
has preserved to us, of how dangerous it is for an 
enemy to penetrate far into a mountainous coimtry. 

* In addition to tbe poeMcuI treatment of the event by Edvard Storm in 
the romuice which is BO popular for its" Homeric naivete," it baa been treated 
dranuaicdllj by K. L. Rahbek under Uie title of "Skottekrigeti eller Bonde- 
bryUuppet i Gudbrandsdalen " (The Scottish War ; or, The Bonde Wedding 
inGudbrandsdalen). Itwaspublishedeeparately(C»penhagQii,1810),aDdiB 
also to be found in Uie coUec^on of his plays, vol. iL , pp. 1-83. The event is 
also the subject of a tragedy by Henry Wei^land, " Sinolara Dbd" (Sin- 
clair's Death), Christiania, 1828; and J. St. Wang's novel, " Skottwtoget 
eller Slaget ved Kiingen". (The Scottish Expedition; or. The Battle of 
Kringsn), two volumes, Chriationift, 1836 and 1837, is founded upon it 



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Part HL 
appen6ice0. 

Historical Documents. 



Digirsfl by Google 



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EXTRACTS FROM THE "SWEDEN AND DEN- 
MARK CORRESPONDENCE, 1612,"* IN THE 
PUBLIC RECORD OFFICE, LONDON. 



MoBt humbly sheweth unto your Majestic, 

Moreover Sir, they heire are much greeved against Scottis 
men, in regairde of some Scottis ehippes, that have nowe of 
late fallen in, In Norroway,t and done great hurt unto the 

* In manuscript. 

i* "niere ftppe&n to be no record in Norwegian Ustory of them piratic&l 
viaitB. They may possibly have been undertaken witli tlie view of select- 
ing \ place of disembarkation for the 3oottish levies. The £arl of Orkney 
in question was one of the great feudal lords of Scotland. He oommitted 
" many extravagant excesses of arbitrary authority amangBt tbe wild re- 
oeeses of the Orkney and Zetland Islands ; " and having at length shown 
■ome token of a wish to assume sovereign power, he was tried and eiooated 
at Edinburgh on the 6th February 1614 ("Tales of a Grandfather"), In 
the Swedish State Archives is preserved a letter, dated London, April 4, 
1611, from "Robert Stewart" to Steinbock, Swedish ambassadar at the 
Hague, ui^ng that if mone; be sent there is a good opportunity of en- 
gaging men, as "thair ia sum companeis to be caasered out of holand 

this nixt mounth." There is also an earlier letter from him to the same 
ambassador, dated London, December 10, IGIO, recommending the bearer, 
Ciqttain Stewart, for employment, and asking, "Hwatseruiceyourtoaister 



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134 BIsroRlCAL DOCUMENTS. 

inhabitaate there, and taken sindrie shippes out ol theire 
h&TenB, which the Dunkirkera never did in tyme of warre : 
the one shippe is found to have been the Erie of Orknayis, 
for ghee was a flybotte of Dunkerke, that he had, and one 
Stewart is Captane of berre ; ther is anoUier shippe in the 
oompanie whois captaine is also named Stewart ; and they 
have a tbirde shippe the Captane wherof is a Hollander : 
and the fourth is a pryse that they have taken : they have 
beene the first, thirds and fyft of Juin, in aundrie hsrbreis of 
Norroway ; I have myself reade the letters Bent hither to 
the Chancellor, with haTie complainte against them. They 
heere doe beleeve certainely, that they have commission, ather 
from Wormistoun, or els from S' Eobert Stewart, wich I have 
protested instantlle against, assuring them that if such a 
thing be with there consent, they never darre looke yo' M"" 
in the face. In lyk maner this last winter, at my being 
heere in Denmark in that great defaitte that Gustavus had, 
there was a Skots Ansient* taken prisoner when there was 
no quarter kept amongst them, whois name is Fryngle ; Ute 
King wpone my most bumble suit, and by meanes of the 
Chancellor, Bett him at libertie, in regard that he was your 
M** subject, as be hath done sindrie others : this Fringle, 
efter he bad given hie oathe and a reversse taken under bis 
hand, that be should never goe to Sweden, nather serve 
against the King of Denmark, be is now taken againe, in a 
shippe going to Sweden, and I am almost ashamed to speek 

the King of Suedeii will employ me with and wpoa what condiciotmeB. 
Without mony I noa he can do no «enuoe to the Kyng ytrar (L} mftiater." 
On the 29th November 1610 the Duke of " Lenoi " wrote to 8teinboelt, 
warmly recommending Captain James Stuart, who desired to repair a 
aeoond time to Sweden. Another letter from him (likewise in the Swedish 
Archives), relating to William Stuart, wilt be found on page 178. 
* Ensign. 



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HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS. 135 

any more, in bis behalfe ; witli such things I ame oft met 
heere : a» also with thir Inglieh mtuinera sindrie diBconteat. 
So I humblie emve your M"' pardone, for trowbling of your 
M"" with thir Idle mattera, but they being used as ail- 
ments against me in conference, I thought good to lett your 
M* know the trewth. 



Sir, 

His Ma" hath commanded me to lett you understand 
that having heard yesternight by meere accident that certein 
companies of men were levying in Scotland and redy to 
embarke under the conduct of Ramsey, Steward and some 
other captaines hia Ma" enquiring whither they int«nded it 
was told him that they went for Sweeden, which his Ma" 
being di^leaaed with gave order presently for the stay of 
tie levy and whereas some good number of them were 
alredy embarked before his Ma" heard the newes or redy 
to embarke his Highness also hath given order to discharge 
them and doth utterly disadvow anie act of theira and al- 
though he have been told by ther frendes that they desired 
to serve the King of Sweeden in Muscovy and they should 
be farre from annoying the King of Denmarke yet was not 
his Ma" satisfied therwith but hath sent to forbidde them, 
accompting it all one to serve the King of Sweden there or 
neerer to Denmarke for that it should but enable him to 
use the greater force against the King of Denmarke. And 
this his Ma" doth out of memory of his promise to the King 
of Denmarke and out of his eapeciall care to discharge all 



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136 HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS. 

parte <d a kinde frend and brother towardea him. And 
least anie evill report should be brought to hia eare of the 
levyiDg and embarking of these men his Ma" thou^t fit to 
be the first reporter of it himselfe by you his Minister tliere 
and his pleasure therefore is that yoa take the first oppor^ 
tunity to advertise him of it in his Ma*" name both how the 
levy was without his Ma*^ warrant and bow spedely his 
Highnes nppon the first hearing of it did take order to pro- 
hibit their proceeding. 



Sib Robkbt Aitstbijtbbb to the Kiiia 

Fnm Haimeitade the W of Aguit ISlt. 
Most humbly sheweth unto your Majestie, 

Hie King of Denmark is informed, that one Menigowe a 
fleeming, haveing in companie with him fyfteen hundreth men, 
is to meet with Androw Ramsay, in some pairt of the North 
of Scotland, about Caithness, or Orknay, who hath in lyk 
manor moe than a thowsand Scottis men with, and so they 
mynd to joine their forces togitber, and to fall upon Norro- 
way, and spoile some towns, and so to goe into Sweden. The 
King of Denmark doeth much merraiie theirat, in regaird 
of that letter which your M"" sent wnto him, when Sir 
Kobert Stewart, and Maister Ramsay went first into Swe- 
den : whereby your M*" desyred, that tiiey might pass 
saively, for particnloirs of their owne^ and that their going 
shuld in no wayis prejudge the King of Denmark : notwith- 
standing Maister Ramsay being come to Sweden, maid offer 
of his service to the Prince and State of Sweden : and com- 
ing owt agaiae, had letters and directions to my Lord of 



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HISTORICAL DOCUMEITTS. 137 

Wormeston, which he did throw in the Bea, being taken 
prisoner by the King of Denmarks ships, and browght unto 
the King, and examined upon his oathe if he had any com- 
mission for leveing of men, for the King of Swedens wbb, or 
if he intended to goe bah againe to serve him : all which he 
then flatly denyed, and did sweare that he ahuld never 
. serve against Denmark ; wherewpon he was dismissed, with 
a saveoonduict to goe through the King of Denmarks do- 
miuions. Notwithstanding of this, the King of Denmark 
is certainly informed by men corned owt of Scotland, that he 
hath leveed men about Eden'** and imbarked them at Leeth : 
And moreover his M"* tould me of a particular man that wes 
killed in Leith by one of bis companie, which caused a great 
sturre amongst some noble men, and the towne of Leith. 
His M"" wsed this speech as an argument to prove, that such 
leveis, and imbarkements so neere to Eden'^ could not be 
done without permission of the State : whereto I answered, 
that I beleeved certainly, that these leveia were not, by any 
antboritie of your M"° or the State, but only voluntarie men, 
of whom the cuntry is full, for want of Imployment.* And 
moreover I caDed his M"^ to mynd, that 10 yeers agoe when 
William Ogilvye, and 6 yeers agoe when Wormeston went 
over in tyme of peace betwixt Denmark and Sweden : not- 
witiistanding I know perfytly, that none of them had licence 
to lift wp men, without express command of your M"* that 

• The removal of the royal residence from Edinburgh attracted to En- 
gland Scotch conrtterB and men of ranli who made fortunea by King 
James's favour. On the other hand, the sons of the gentry and better 
classes, " whose trade had been war and battle," were deprived of employ- 
ment by the general peace with England, and the Scottish nation felt at 
the wune time the distress aiiaing from on excess of population. "To 
remedy the lost svil," says Sir Walter Scott, " the warn on the Continent 
afforded a resource peculiarly fitted to the genius of the Scots, who have 
always had a disposition for visiting fore^ psirts." 



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138 HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS. 

they shuld oerer Imploy themselrea, or their men, against 
the crowne of Denmark ; farre more easily hiB M"' myght 
beleeve that now in tymo of warres y' M^ would give leave 
to no subject of yours, to goe serve against him : I per- 
ceave by the Kings speeches if they come in his hands, they 
shall runne a great hasard. 

His Majesty heeriug of the forces that M' Kamsay and 
Menigow have assembled did send shippee alreadie, towards 
the coaste of Norroway : and heering certainly of their 
strenth, intendeth to send moe shippes and men. 

» • ♦ » * 

receaved 17"* Septem at Havering 



Fnm Coppenhagen Ou; X of Aguit 161S. 
Honorable Knyght, 

Efter that Wormestona man was send away, I receaved 
upon the morrow, the Kii^ M^ directions, conteaaed in 
your letter, concerning M' Ramsayis proceedings : I hope 
his M"" shall be content with my answers, to the King of 
Denmarks objections and complaints t^ainst M' Ramsey and 
his doings : for the King was long before informed of his 
proceedings, with one Menigow a deeming who shuld joine 
with him, and foumish him armour, and money ; as I have 
written at large in my letter to his M'^, 



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HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS. 139 

Draft of Letter from the Kiso to SiB Robbbt Anstbutheb, 
dated 16, Sept mil. 

Trustie eta 

» * * * * 

As for the Scottisbraen goa into Sweeden ; wee hope that 
by o' Lrea by Quarryer w"'' wilbfi w"" yo" before these, the 
King will have receaved satisfaccon in that matter. And as 
wee wrote then, wee wold bee curious to informe ourself, how 
that cold be, considering o' order given to the contrary, when 
o' Secretary of Scotland shold be come, who was then upon 
the way, soe have wee upon his arrivall made veiy Btra%ht 
enquiry of the passage of that matter, and cannot find other 
then this; That as heretofore upon our first entring into 
this £ingdome, the E^rle Hume and some others did Levye 
some men for the Archdukes service (though making us 
privately acquainted w"* it) yet having no publique warrant 
nor striking any drumme, but only passing them in silence ; 
Soe now the Captens of this Levye did by that example sup- 
pose to themselves ; that uauing the same privie maner of 
proceeding w'Vut drumme or !Ehisigne displayed (though 
not making us acquainted w'' it) they might without 
ofience have caryed away such as they cold move volun- 
tarily to goe; the rather, for that they protest they had 
no purpose to serve against the King of Denmarke, 
but to be employed in Muscovia ; a misconceipt of theires 
w* wee doe no wayes allowe ; for indeed it is all one, as if 
they did, seeing their serving tiie King of Sweeden in that 
part doth but enable him to be the stronger against Den- 
marka And o' said Secretary doth further assure us upon 
his creditt w" ua ; that the Levye was so closely caryed, as 
that untill o' Lres came to o' Gouncell of Scotland for the 
stay of them ; he had never for himselfe heard of any such 
thing to be in hand ; He doth further adde that it is likely ; 



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140 BISTORICAL DOCUMXNTS. 

that Andrew RaiuB^ being the cheif of the baieaes (whose 
brother all men knowe what place he hath w*^ oa) manj did 
suppose that it was not w"out our liking ; that he under- 
tooke the transporting of them, until] hj our prohibition the 
contrary was made manifest. Although these be the excuses, 
w*^ oar Councell of Scotland have made to us for this erro', 
yet have they not so satisfied us therew**, that that wee have 
lett them knowe how much wee mislike Bome dullnes of 
theirs, w*^ they canot avoyd ; And wee doe assure o'self that 
hereafter no like thing will happen ; and pray the King to 
be perswaded ; that if any of ours shall soe farre forth for- 
gett themselves as to serve any Adversarye of his ; wee shall 
impute it to them for no lesse t&alt, then if they served an 
Enemy of our owne ; 

As for that point ; concerning Andrew Ramsey, wherew'^ 
the King doth charge him ; that having heretofore (after 
service don to the late K.ing of Sweeden) found favo' at 
the King o' brothera hande ; and given his faith to him 
never to serve the King of Sweeden against him more ; wee 
are so much displeased w"' his cariage therein ; as we meane 
to take a. due tryall thereof ; and if he doe not give as eatis- 
faccon although by course of Lawe the fact be of that nature 
as hath no punishment p''scribed ; yet shall o' usage towarde 
him be such ; as oU men shall perceive how farre wee mislike 
men of so unworthie disposic^ 



Draft front the King to Sis Robert AwsTanrsBS, datfd SO, Sept. tSIt, 
Trustie, etc. 

Yo' shall also lett him understand concerning Andrew 
Ramsey, aa wee wrote in o* last Ires to yo° wee wold ; so did 



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HISTORICAL DOCVMBITTS. 141 

vee take to speedie order to have a tiyall made what he 
could answere to the lowle fact of breach of hia faith to the 
Kinge Ministers who had him priBoner w°^ ycf Irea did charge 
him -w^ ; for w* purpose, he being called before o' Oouncel! 
hid himself ; and being often sumoned and not appearing, is 
for his contempt at the Horn, whereby yo° may say unto the 
King, he hath now given ua a good ground to puniahe him 
by coorse of lawe ; for that before although his fact proving 
true ; we might have ever tliought of him as a naughtie and 
imworthie per^s, yet could wee not have inflicted any 
punishement uppon him, for that the declaring of Shelmo is 
not in use w"" ne. But now having out of his owne fact 
putt himself in the daunger of the lawe wee have ground to 
proceed against him ; whereby the King and all men shall 
see how much we detest such acts. 

Wee have also taken a coorse to trye whenne the moneys 
came w°'' wee heard he bad distributed to the men he levyed; 
And we doe find that the money came not out of Sweeden ; 
but from whence he had it wee will spare to deliver at this 
pnt, but at yo' retome wee will make yo" acquainted w"" it, 
and by yo% the King shall aftorwardes understand. 



Sib Bobebt Ahstrdthui to the Kins. 

From G>pptniagm tS Oetober Kit. 
Humblie sheveth unto your Majestic, 

***** 
Doutles your M"* heth bard, of that inf ortunat accident that 
faapned unto SOD of your M*" subjects, which landed in Nor- 
roway, under the conduiot of Alex' Ramsay, (Lieutonant 
Ooronell onto Coronel Bamsay) captane Hay, and Captane 
Sinclaire. Efter they had martched six dayia within the 



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Iti HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS. 

cnntiy, pressing to goe through to Sweden, were overcharged 
by the inhabitants of the cuntry, and all killed, except some 
few, of which the said lieutenant Bamsay, and Captane 
Bmce, James Monypenny, and James Scott these foure 
were sent to Denmark efter their coming hither, a couusell 
of warre was called, to have examined them, and efterward 
to have given judgement upon them. Eftor I had spoken wi& 
them, and fand that theire journey was interpiysed rashly, 
and rather simple then weel advysed ; for not one of them 
had any kynd off commissloa or warrant to shew, nather 
fromtbe l&t« King Charles, nather from OuBtavus, neither 
from Coronell Bamaay ; wherein first they would have beene 
condemned of great simpticitie, or ignorance : and nbct founde 
to be plaine invaders, and ravers of the Kings Dominionns, 
and subjects, and a severe JudgemEt would have followed, in 
regairde the King was much discontented, for eviting of this 
publick censure, and danger, I tbonght good to labour to 
have them privily examined in the presence only of the 
Chancellore and Bredo Bantzow, where I was myself, (un- 
worthie) present : their depositione is sent with them Bel& 
unto your M"* hoping it shall be farre better for them to 
come into the hands of your Boyali M*^ wboe ever had used 
grace, and clemencie unto those, that offends of simplicitye, 
and not of willfulnes. 



Lttterfrom Sir Rodebt Anstbuthbb to Sia Trohab Lacue, Knyght, etc 
Coppenliagtn, SG of October lOlS. 

I dout not but you have hard the inforlunat newis of 
these 300 Scottis men that went to Norroway ; the bouiv 
of the country haue killed, and murthered them all, except 



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BISTOmCAL DOCVMBNTS. 143 

some few, whereof Captane Alex' Kamsay, Captane Heuiy 
Bruce, James Monypenny, and Jamea Scott are saved, 
and sent by the King of Denmark unto his M"° of great 
Britannie : for it is much better for them to come in the 
hands of a gratious and merciful! King, then to runne the 
has&rde and judgement of a merschel court of warre, which 
was heere ordained for them, if I had not prevented it, and 
procured, efter private examination, that they shuld be 
sent into Ingland. 



Paper tadorted 16, Sep I6It. The examination of Als 



Anno MDCXII. die XV, mensisOctobriSjin hortoSerenias"' 
ao Potentiss"' Principia ao- Domini, Domini CHRISTIiN'I 
Quarti, Danite, Norwagiie, etc Regis &. Domini nostri cle- 
mentissimi, coram nobis, Eoberto Anstrutero, Ser"' magme 
Britauniie pro tempore Legato, Christiano Frisio et Bredone 
Bantzovio, regni DaniK Senatoribua, constitutus Alexander 
Bamse, et ad diversa interrogata, hiec que sequuntnr, con- 
fessus fuit. 

Se ab Andrea Ramse in Locum tenentem assumptum : 
dictum ver6 Andream, ae Caroli, B«gi3 Suecice, Uteris, ad 
summi Ducis officium ascitum esse, affirmasse : Yeruntamen 
nullas hac de re literaa vidinse : De stipendio non conventum 
esse ; spem sibi factam, fore, ut tantum stipendii, quantum 
quilibet alter supremi Ducis Locum tenens in Suecia, acci- 

Correptus ; quod S" R" M"" M^inte Britannise mandatum 

traosgresBUB esset, contrit intulit se preeuominati Andrew 

12 



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144 HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS. 

RAinse fidem sequutum : Dixerat eaim, jamdicta S* M** 
Mognn Britanniie sciente et indulgente ilia fieri. 

Bocietatein coDstitdsse tribus, sua proprii, et duabus aliis 
penonis, Georgio Sincklar et Georgio Hey, singulis ceatuni 
peditum pnefectia. 

S^ Alexandrum, Dondi navim conscendiase : duos verb 
pnedictoB Capitaaeoa Ketues, insulanun, quEe Orcadibus 
aimumerautnr, uii6, tribus miliaribus Germanicia Orcadibus 
distant« solvisse. 

Senatorea regni Scotiee luec omnia latere, oeq* 6icultatem 
UDquatn petitam ; Yeriim pneEati Andrera Baoiae verbia et 
promiBsis nitentea, tranafretaase. 

Siatendi locum fuixse prtefixum sub Hetlaudia, qu6 mille 
militibns, et tribus armorum tnillibus Munichouen, ut et 
Eupremua Dux Hacket, Scotus, niille peditibua instructi, 
oonfluerent, numero ad tria niiJlia accrescente. 

Secundo die Auguati illinc solviaae : Se, Alexandrum 
Ramae, 400 Sterlingorum libras, in centum milites im- 
pendisse. Majores enia) sumptus fieri, furtim et clam, qujkm 
public^ mi litem conacribendo. 

Jacobnm Nisbet Edinburgensem, periculum, quod navis 
incnrrere posset, in se recepiss& Rusticos Norwagienees 
iter monatrasae, ubi appulerant in Itamsdal, in liafiord. 

Hnic eKamini interfuere Jacobus Monipenne et Jacobua 
Scott 

In majorem hujusce esaminia et confeasiouia, priefati Alex- 
andri Eamse, fidem, propriarum mtuiuum subscriptione bsec 
corroborare voluimua. Actum Hafnite, 15 die mensis Octobris, 
AnnodH\ 1612. 

EOBERTUB AnSTRUTHER. 



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HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS. 146 

Trtm^ation nf foregoing. 

la tlie year 1613, on the fifbeenth day of the month of 
October, ia the garden of the Most Serene and Powerful 
Prince and Lord, CHRISTIAN the Fourth, King of Den- 
mark, Norway, etc, and our most gracious Liege, was Alex- 
ander Ramsay brought into the presence of us, Robert 
Anstruther, pro tern. Ambassador of His Moat Serene Majesty 
of Great Britain, Christian Friis, and Brinde Rantzow, coun- 
cillors of the realm of Denmark, and in answer to divers 
questions made the statements which do hereinafter follow : — 

That he had been appointed to the post of lieutenant- 
colonel by Andrew Eanisay; that the said Andrew had 
declared that he had been appointed to the office of colonel 
by a letter from Charles, King of Sweden, but he had him- 
self seen no such letter ; that there had been no agreement 
concerning pay; that he had been led to hope that he 
Would receive as much pay as any other lieutenant-colonel 
serving in Sweden. 

When reproached with having gone beyond the com- 
mands of His Majesty of Great Britain, he set forth in his 
defence that he had relied on the word of the aforesaid 
Andrew Ramsay ; for he had said that those things were 
being done with the knowledge and approval of His afore- 
said Sacred Majesty of Great Britain. 

That an agreement had been made between three persons, 
himself and two others, George Sinclair and George Hay, 
each being in command of a hundred infantry. 

That he, Alexander, had embarked at Dundee ; but the 
two aforesaid captains had set sail from Caithness, one of 
the islands which are reckoned among the Orkneys {dc), but 
distant three German miles from the Orkneys. 

That all these things were unknown to the Council of the 



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146 HISTORJCAL DOCUMJElfTS. 

kingdom of Scotland, nor had any permission been applied 
for ; but that relying on the words and promises of the 
aforesaid Andrew Ramsay, they had crossed the sea. 

That a stopping-place had been fised upon beforehand off 
Shetland, where Uonnichhofen, furnished with a thouBand 
soldiers and three thousand arms, as also General (1) Hacket 
(Halkett) of Scotland, with a thousand infantry, were to meet, 
the number increamng to three thousand 

That they had set sail from that place on the second day 
of August. That be, Alexander Ramsay, had spent four 
hundred pounds sterling upon a hundred soldiers ; for that 
greater expenses were incurred in enlisting soldiers privily 
and secretly than (by enlisting them) publicly. 

That James Nisbet of Edinburgh had taken upon himself 
the risk which the ship might incur, That the Norwegian 
peasants had shown them the way, when they had landed at 
Bomsdal in lisfiord. 

At this examination were present James Moneypenny and 
James Scott. 

That more reliance maybe placed on this examination and de- 
position of the aforesaid Alexander Kamsay, we liave wished to 
corroborate these statements by the signaturesofourown hands. 

Done at Copenhagen, the 15th day of the month of 
October, in the year, etc., 1612. 

BOBERT AtrSTKCTHER. 

Christian Friis, Brinde Rantzow. 

{Sign manual.) {Sign manuaf.) 



Pap«r eadoTted ISH, tl Sav. Tht examinatiim of AnoBRW 'RaMbkt gttit. 
The examination of Androw Bams^ gent, taken the 
27 Nov. 1612, in the presence of the Duke of Lenox and 
Ld. Viscount Fenton. 



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HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS. 147 

Being asked when he came out of Sweeden whether he 
had any commission from the King of Sweeden for levying 
of men he confeaeetb he had but for service against the 
Muscovite and that being taken by the King of Denmarkea 
ships he cast it into the sea. 

Being asked when he was taken by the ships of Denmarke 
and examined whether he made any promise or gave anie oth 
for not serving against the King of Denmarke he denyeth that 
ever he made anie such promise by speacb or by oth or was ever 
pressed to do so nor did at that time see the King of Denmark& 

Being asked how he durst undertake of goe about to levy 
men in Scotland without the Kings licence or privity He 
sayth he did it of ignorance not knowing but that he might 
lawfully take such as wold goe And for his fault submitteth 
himself to his Ma** mercy as also for using the Kings name 
to induce others w*^ he confesseth he did and promised them 
to stand between them and anie danger. 

Being asked if the King were acquainted w"" his doings 
He sayeth, he never had any leave oversight or connivence 
directly or indirectly from the King ; either by himself ; or 
by meanea or significacoh of any other bodie. 

Being asked if any of the Kings Councell of Scotland or any 
other officers of the Kings were acquainted with his doings or 
did encourage him. He sayth he never acquainted anie with 
it nor receaved anie encouragement from them or anie els. 
A. Ramsey. 



Anno MDCXL die XIX, mensis Decembris. 8* E" M"" 
Danite, Norwegife & Bominns noster clementissimus, nobis 
infra nominatis, clementissime injunxit, ut Scotum quendara, 



n,<jr.=^-h, Google 



146 HISTORICAL DOCUMElfTa. 

Andream BamsS, qui una cum duobns LocnmtenentibuB, 
totidemq* famulta, navi ex Suecis Lubecam tendens, in itinere 
uni cum navi captua atq* Hafniam conductus fuerat, poeteii 
ver6 buc, uno Vicetenente comite, ue receperat, de subse- 
quentibvs capitibus, proprifi S' H" M*^ manu designatis, in- 
terrc^iaremtia, et quemlibet separatim examini Bubmittere- 

1. Ubi locorum fatniliaritatem pnm6 colere ceperint, quo 
hoepitio et hospite usi sint 

2. Quomodo commeatum rel abenndi facoltatem obtinuerit. 

3. Quot peregriui militum pnefecti adhuc in Suecia, et 
quinam eomm ad conacribendum militem extra regnimi, 
degant. 

4. Quorum cDnterraneorum, et ad quos literas secam fer- 
ant N'ullutQ enim dubium, quin tam Stuardus, qu&m alii 
ad mioB amicos, literas dederint. 

5. Quidnam Stuardua cum literis aalvi conductuB, Cal- 
marite a Nobis acceptis, egerit. 

6. Causam dicat, cur Stuardus ab omnibus Suecis, Begis 
magnte Britaimiie, appelletur legatua 

7. Qnasnam conditionea obtulerint Stuardo, ipsius «re ae 
liberandl 

VicetenenB speciatdui inteirogandua, quomodo k Capitaneo 
Buo diaceBserit, et aub quo aummo Duce stipendia fecerit. 

Cum vero meridian^ sit luce clarius, ejusmodi viris, qui 
diu iu Suecia militarem operam pnestiterunt, sine apecialior- 
ibua pasaagii literia, abitum minime concedi, quo {)acto inde 
solverit. 

Hoc clementiasimo mandato accepto, atatim Ottonia, arcia 
pnefecti conclave, locum comparendi prtefato Bamso asaig- 
navimns, ibidem eundem separatim e:caminavtmus, et quie 
aequuntur, in medium proferentem audivimua. 



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BISTOSICJL DOCUMENTS. 149 

Ad pritnum articuluni : Locumtenentem, hie sibi comitem 
coDEanguineum suum ease : Eundem Stockholmise, in diver- 
sorio Ducis Johannis, cuivis ibi loci noto, quando cum suo 
capitaneo Lormundt, etiam Scoto, ex Livonia, ubi per quiti- 
quenninm militaasefc veiiiret, casu in sc. incJdisse. Se, Bamsd, 
dicto vicetenenti veniam apud Ducem Guatavum impe- 
trasse. 

Ad secundum : Kullas sibi, neq* Regis, neq' Ducum, Gus- 
tavi et Johannia, reriiin unas tantum Yicetenentia Stock- 
holmite, in suum ipsins duorum Locum- tenentium totidemq* 
famulontm usum, salvi conductus literas fnisse, quas 
Waxholmi, antequam navim ascendissent, redditas post se 



Ad tertium : Sequentes Duces et pnefectos militum, adhuc 
in Suecia commorari ; Summum Ducem Eoderfort, Scotum, 
ejusdem Lociiiu-t«nentem Lormundt ; Horum Legionem vel 
regimen constare 8 vel 9 cohortibus ; Capitaneum Wachop ; 
Munichow ; Summum Ducem Due ; Casparum Matzen ; 
Gnec, Scotum, magistrum maciiinanim fulminalium. In 
obsidione Calmarice, Sc1oj>ette globo jamdictu Oraec tibiam 
alteram ita vnlnenitatD, ut 20 ossicula exempta fuerint, 
atq* jam num de vita ipsiua desperari. An aliqui, ad con- 
scribendum externum militem emisai sint, se omnino nesciura 

Ad quortum ; Kullas se babere literas. 

Ad quintum : Stuardum literafl aalvi conductus navarchsB, 
4 quo Calmarii Rusbuy vectus erat, tradidisse, ut ho melifts 
ad sues rfdire posset; vicetenentem etiam Hafniensem af- 
i]rma£se,.ad suas manus prtedictas literae venisse. 

Ad sextum : Vulgum de Stuardo tanquam de Legato sen- 
tire; Stuardum verb hoc mgch feiT& In aula tamen non 
idem de ipso judicium fieri. 



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100 aiSTOSICAL DOCVMBSTS. 

Ad Beptimum: Solutionis ape in ver prosimum, pecunia 
vnl cupro interfuturo, Stu&rdum lactori. 

CKterum : pnenominatus Baii)s5, per discursum et inciden- 
ter retulit, Domiuum de la ViUe, Gedanum abiisse, 7,000 
Joochimicorum, ibidem aibi nnmerandomm, literiB cambii 
acceptia: Veriiai nihil, nisi fraudem «t vana promissa, exper- 
turn esae: In obsidione Calmarin latua alteram ipsi globo 
ictum: 

Dixisse etiam, quamvia ab Angelo ctelis delapso, sibi sna- 
deretar, nt in Suecia pedem sisteret, neqnaquam tamen se 
facturum. 

Omnes pnefectos vel oSiciales regai Suedfe, in Calmarite 
obsidione, prKter Monnichowen, Tulneratoa esse : Ea ex 
causa, quod cnteros pmdentia anteiret, et eminus certar« 
novisset. Hisce peractis, ipsum in hospitium dimisimus, et 
Locumtenentem, Robert um Douglis, accersi curavimus, 
eodem plan6 modo, ut supra ad pnefatos articulos respon- 
sionem ejus fl^tantea. 

Bespondit : Se et dictum Kamsd, amitinos esse: In Scotia 
uxorem et liberos se habere, ibidemq' mali quid perpetrasse; 
in Livonia, per sexennium militasse; Lubecam navi, cum 
qua captus erat, tendisse; Eandem, pro ut navarclia videndi 
copiam feciseet, cuprum et ferrutn vehere. 

Neq* abitus neq' conductus literas habere; et niai in hunc 
Ramso fort^ incidisset^ ex Suecia discedendi potestatem sibi 
denegatam fuisse; Spatio 4 annorum, tribua mensibus excep- 
tis, nihil stipendii se accepiase. Capitaneum suum nunc in 
Snecia prope Boosund commorari ; Se tres septimanas solum- 
modoin Suecia subatitisse; Nicopingi vert Capitaneum suum 
liquiase: Et quamvis couuueatum petiisset, nihil tamen, nisi, 
abeas, abeas, ae ab eo oretenns obtinuiase. A Duce Gruatavo, 
ilium petere, minime ausum fuisse; Capitaneum suum, officia 



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HISTORICAL DOCUMESTS. 151 

sua, Snecis ulterius promisiese: sex pnetereit Capitaneos, 
natione ScotOB, ibidem adhuc inservire: Dominum de la 
Baire, circa 500 Equites Suecos ducere; limites defendere; 
nullum alias peregrinum auperease militem. 

Sex cohorteB, 600 Equitum numero, ex Livonia proximo 
vere exspectari. Se audivisse, qu6d in Suecia, ne unica qui- 
dem Gormani militis cohors, int^;ra ait. De conscribendo 
extemo milite, nihil sibi constare, nisi de eo postquam comi- 
tia finem habuerint, quidpiam inaudiri posait. 

GustavatQ specioso illo verbo, accipietis, accipietis, credi- 
torea era residua exigentes, prensare et pascere. 

Nullaa ae habere liferae, prfeterunas Meroatoria, cujuedam, 
et scbednlatn catubti, 150 Thaleroruui, ad civem quendam 
Lubecensem, Hermannum Scheflerum; prsedictam achedulanj 
Roatochium mittendam. 

De salvi couductua Stuardi Uteris, nihil sibi conatare. 
Stuardum Ter& pneter victum nihil accupisae ; ibidem bie- 
mem consumpturum. 

Non esse legatuuij Stuardum; Rusticos quidem ita eum 
nuncupare : prim6 ibidem k se visum. 

Suecoa maxima constematione percitos; destitui militibus; 
post comitia, buc legates missum iri; Regem Carolum, i 
populo devoveri; Naves prope Stockholmiam, non nautis, sed 
Rustica plebe, regi ; Pane et halece, vnlgb Stromling, victi- 
tare: In Muscovia etiam milites fame perire. 

Suecnm non habiturum peregrinum, aiquidem optimus hisce 
in oris jam adsit, militem. 

Alterum ilium Locum-tenentem, qui nunc Hafnite, pne- 
terita (estate in Suecia, antea vero in Livonia militasse ; ab 
hisoe aliena non relaturum. 

Quod hfec omnia, ut supra consignata sunt, ita interroga- 
verimus, et reaponsionea ad interrogata factas, prtesentes audi- 



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IM HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS. 

verimiis, manuum noBtramm subscriptions et sigillis testa- 
Actum Friderichabnrgi, 19 die Decembris 1611. 



It imninni tiu» KqDJtara n 



Trtin^ation <tf the foregoing. 
In th(9 year 1611, on the nineteenth day of the month 
of December, His Boyal Majesty of Denmark, Norway, etc, 
onr most gracious Lord, did most graciously enjoin upon us 
the undersigned to interrogate upon the following heads, as 
set forth by His Royal Majesty's own hand, a certain Scot, 
Andrew Bamsay, who, while crossing by sea from Sweden to 
Lubeck with two lieut«nants and two servants, had been, 
together with the vessel, captured on the voyage and brought 
into Copenhagen, and had afterwards, accompanied by one 
lieutenant, made his way to this place ; and, further, to sub- 
mit each of them to separate examination : — 

1. Where did these two first become intimate 1 At whose 
bouse and at whose hands did they receive entertainment 1 . 

2. How be obtained a letter of safe-conduct or a permit 
sion to leave the country. 

3. How many foreign officers are still in Sweden, and who 
of them are engaged in raising troops abroad. 

i. From whom among their countrymen and to whom they 
are conveying letters. For there is no doubt tJiat Stuart as 
well as others have given letters to their friends. 

6. What Stuart did with the letter of safe-conduct which 
he received from ns at Calmar. 



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■ SISTOBICAL DOCOMESTS. 163 

6. Let him tell tLe reason why Stuart is called by all the 
Swedes ambassador of the King of Great Britam, 

7. What conditions they have offered to Stuart with a 
view to freeing themGelves from their debt io him. 

The lieutenant to be asked especially how he came to leave 
his captain, knd under what commander (general 1) he has 
served. 

And since it is clearer than noonday that men like these, 
who have long served in Sweden, wonld by no means be 
allowed to leave the country without a special passport, how 
he managed to get away from thence. 

Immediately after this most gracious mandate had been 
received, we assigned to the said Ramsay the private chamber 
of Otte, the governor of the castle, as the place where he 
should present himself, and there we examined him separately, 
and heard him make openly the following statemente : — 

In answer te the first question — 

That the lieutenant, his companion here, was a relative of 
his. That he had fallen in with him by chance at Stock- 
holm in t]ie country-house of Duke John — a house well 
known to every one in that place — on hia return with his 
captain, Learmonth, also a Scot, from Livonia, where he had 
served for five years. That be, Ramsay, had obtained leave 
te go (pardon?) from Duke Gustavus for the said lieutenant. 

To the second — 

That he had had no letter of safe-conduct either &om the 
King or from Dukes Gustavus and John, hut only one from 
the lieutenant-governor of Stockholm, for the use of himself, 
his two lieutenants, and his two servants, which letter he 
had given up and left behind him at Waxholm* before they 
embarked. 

■ • A town and fortreag near Stockhobn. 



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1S4 HISTORICAL DOCUilSflTS. 

To the third— 

That the following oommanden and officers were still left 
in Sweden : — General Rutherford, a Scot, and his lieutenant 
Learmonth ; that their force or regiment consiBted of eight 
or nine companies ; Captain Wauchope ; Monnichhofen ; 
General Due ; Caspar Matzen ; Greig, a Scotchman, com- 
mander of the artillery. That at the siege of Calmar the 
aforesaid Qreig had been so severely wounded in the shin- 
bone by a cannon-ball that twenty pieces of bone were 
taken out, and evea then they had little hope of his life. 
That be does not know at all whether any officers have been 
sent to levy soldiers abroad- 

To the fourth— 

That he has no letters. 

To the fifth— 

That Stuart had given wp the letter of safe-conduct to the 
captain of the ship, who took him from Calmar to RyswikfF)* 
to facilitate his return home. Besides, the lieutenant-gover- 
nor of Copenhagen hod stated that the aforesaid tett«r had 
come into his hands. 

To the sixth- 

That the common people looked upon Stuart in the light 
of an ambassador, and that this annoyed him greatly ; but at 
the Court he was not regarded in tlie same light. 

To the seventh — 

Tliat Stuart was being cajoled by the hope of payment in 
the following spring, either in money or in copper. 

Further; the said Kamsay did state, by the way and inci- 
dentally, that the Sieur de la Yille had gone away to Danzig 
on the receipt of a letter of credit to the amount of seven 
thousand dollars, payable to htm at that place, but that he 

* Near the Ha^e. 



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HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS. 155 

had met with nothing but lies aad vain promises ; that at 
the siege of Calmar he (de la Yilte!) had been struck in. the 
Hide hj e. ball ; and, furtlier, he had said that though an 
angel were to come down from heaven to persuade him to 
set foot in Sweden, he would certainly refuse to do so. 

That all the officers or officials in the employroent of the 
Bking of Sweden at the siege of Calmar had been wounded, 
except Monnichhofen ; and the reason was that he sur- 
passed the others in prudence, and knew Low to fight from 
a distance. 

After this had been gone through, we dismissed him to 
his lodging, and bad the lieutenant, Bobert Douglas, called, 
and in exactly the same manner as above required him to 
answer to the aforesaid questions. 

He answered :— 

That he and the said £amsaj were cousins ; that he had 
a wife and children in Scotland, and had committed some 
crime there ; that he had served for six years in Livonia ; 
' that he had been on his way to Lubeck in the ship in which 
he had been captured ; that the same ship was carrying a 
cargo of iron and copper, as far as the captain had given 
him an opportunity of seeing. 

That he had no permission to leave the country, or letter 
of safe-conduct ; and had he not chanced upon this Bamsay, 
leave to depart out of Sweden would have been refused him; 
that in the course of four years, with the exception of three 
months, he had received no pay ; that his captain was now 
in Sweden in the neighbourhood of Boosund ; that he him- 
self had only stayed three weeks in Sweden, but had left bis 
captain at Nykiiping ; and that although he had asked for a 
letter of safe-conduct, he had received nothing in answer to 
his entreaties but the words, "Begone, begone with you;" 



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IM HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS. 

that he had not dared to ask Duke Gustavus for this letter; 
that hiB captain bad promised hiu further services to the 
Swedes ; that six captains besides, Scotchmen bj birth, were 
still in the service of the countiy ; that the Sieur de la Barre 
was in coinmaiid of about five hundred Swedish cavalry; 
that they were defending the frontier ; that no fcveign 
soldiers were still left in any other place. 

That six troops of cavalry, six hundred in all, were ex- 
pected from Livonia nest spring ; that he had heard it said 
that there ia not even one company of German soldiers in 
Sweden left entire. About the enrolment of soldiers abroad 
be knows nothing, though something may possibly be heard 
on the subject, after the session of the council is over. 

Tliat Gustavus was putting off and nourishing (the hopes 
of) his creditors, who were demanding their arrears of pay- 
ment, with the specious words, " Be sure you shall be paid, 
he sure you shall be paid." 

That he had no letter, except one from a merchant, a letter 
of credit for one hundred and fifty thalers to a citizen of 
Lnbeck, named Hermann Schefler ; that the said letter was 
to be sent to Rostock. 

That he knew nothing about Stuart's letter of safe-con- 
duct ; that Stuart had received nothing except his food ; 
that he was going to spend the winter there ; that Stuart 
was not an ambassador ; that the country people indeed 
cajled him so ; that he had seen Stuart for the first time in 
Sweden. 

That the Swedes were thoroughly panic-stricken ; they 
were deserted by their soldiers ; after the session was over 
envoys would be sent here (to treat for peace) ; that King 
Charles was execrated by the people ; the ships at Stockholm 
were manned with peasants, not sailors; they had te live 



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HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS. 167 

on bread and fish-brine, called by the natiTee "StTSmUng;" 
that in Bueaia, too, the soldiers were dying by Camiae. 

That the Swedes would not succeed in getting foreign 
soldiers, as the best were- already engaged in these parts 
(Denmark). 

That the other lieutenant, who was now at Copenht^en, 
bad served in Sweden during the past summer, and previously 
in Livonia ; that the account he would give would not differ 
from the present. 

That we did put all these questions as set down above, 
and that wo did hear with our own ears the answers given 
to those questions, we bear witness with the signature of our 
own hands and seals. 

Done at Fredericksborg on the 1 9th day of December 161 1. 



GlOBO LUHU, 


JOtOHIH BDIOW, 


Thobub LlUTUlBUW, 


H.a.B.M.'S ol 


H.S.R.M.'S. of 


H.S.R.M.'S. o( Dm- 


Dwma^tto. 


DuiDuik, tic. 


mirk, sto., ^nettturj 




OoT.rnor or 


loUnChMcellerjor 






FgrelgnAffi^r,. 


AumQ uid 






Omtnl. 


Hone. 





Trustie and well beloved, wee greet yo° well 

Now for yo'self ; we cannot but take it in ill part from yo", 
that wee heare so sealdome from yo" ; and thinck yo" are, 
instead of an Ambassado', become a Secretary to keepe Coun- 
cell: for to the severall dispatches wee have made to yo', 
one of the nynth of August by Quarryer; one other of the 
sixteenth ; and one other of the second of October ; * we have 



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IM HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS. 

raceived no annswere from yo\ In all w*** we advertised 
yo* <A (f proceeding upon the nimo' wee heard ot the Levyes 
in Scotland; and what coorse wee had taken w*^ Andrew 
Ramsey ; And willed yo' to acqaaint the king w*^ both. 

Last of all; concerning Andrew Ramsey; aa wee have written 
before; that if he fell into o' handes wee wold bo proceed w" 
him; as shold give the king Batisfaci;on : So may yo" lett the 
King understand that the said Andrew Ramsey being firat 
fugitive in Scotland (ae wee have before sent yo' word) and 
secretly comed into England, moved there a quarrell to S' 
Robert Carre of Ankram, for discoveriDg to as (as he said; 
whereby the king may see how his proceeding was w'^iut o' 
privitie) Andrew Ramseys gathering of men in Scotland; 
By occasion of w^ Quarrell he came to be apprehended: 
whome as soone as wee had, wee caused first to be examined 
by some of o' councell, aa well upon the pointes the king 
charged him w"*, aa upon the transgressing of his duty to- 
wardes us ; to w^ pointes wee have sent yo° hia aunswere 
under his owne hand. And upon this Confession of his, his 
fault being of that nature as doth not by any Lawe here or 
in Scotland forfaite life or Lymme ; and the custome of declar- 
ing Schellum being not w* us in use; wee have by oure war- 
rant under oure hande banished him out of all oure Dominions; 
w""" next unto death, is the highest punishment wee could 
inflict; And for the rest of his company; you may assure the 
King wee find thent innocent of any fault; and only misled 
by hia authority; whoe assuring them he had our conniv- 
ence, and having a Brother so nere about us, was easily be- 
leeved; especially using no open proceeding w"'drumme, but 
gathering them w"" silence and seerecye, it oarryed a shew as 
though wee had permitted it. But he having therein abused 



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HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS. 159 

US OB well as them; hath now receaved the punishment due 
to BO lewd a part As for the prisoners sent unto us yom may 
say, finding them likewise no otlierwise in fault then as abused 
by Kamsey; Wee have seat them home to their countrya 
And for Bruce; we sawe no cause to punishe him, seeing the 
King himself layeth nothing to his Charge; but that he refused 
to be a Gaoler to the rest 



Lrtterfrom Sir Eobbbt Anstecthkb, dated "frame Eleonbonrg in Same- 
land theJ4of JanvarU 161! " to Sia Thomas Lach, kn^lU, lecretarie 
in Ike LiUin tongve to hit M"* of Great BrUairu, etc. 

Honorable and worthie knyght. 

Concerning the proceedings with Mr. Ramsay, hiaM"* resteth 
weell contented : but I hope seeing the warres are ended, 
and a ferme peace maide that his M"' also will forget those 
particular querrels. there shall be no thing wanting that 
may forder it. Concerning them that were killed, and taken 
prisonners, God knoweth it greeted me much, both for the 
loss of the men, as also for the King of Denm&rkea cause ; 
for I know it will not forder the nation's goodwils, which no 
smal matter eavint to a great prince. 

I ame sorye that the poaste which I sent for Inglande the 
26 of October hath been so long a comeing to yow, whereby 
I perceave his M"' doeth charge me of negligence, in adver- 
tising how matters doe goe heei-e. 

I hope hia M"* will not imput that longsomnes of a Poaste 
unto me, and see I hope your self will m&k my humble 
excuses. 



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COPIES OF DOCUMENTS* FROM THE GENEEAL 
REGISTER HOUSE, EDINBURGH. 

1. 

Apnd Edinburgli quarto An^sti 1612. 
8«dcnuit 

SaCatETAB KiLBTTH 

Clebk Rboisteb Sm Johnne Abnoi 

Advocat 
Fon&mekle as the Eingis Majeetie and lordis of secrete 
ProelMiuitioDD dii- cooosell ar informed that certaae per- 
SrS"»1lu£3H; "■'"' «l>™>>»g Hi" M.je.t«k priiKdjr 
Bwtaen. name power and auctoritie hes maid some 

lerjis of men irithin this kingdome to be truDsportit to the 
we&re of Swaden, his Majestie being noways acquented, nor 
maid foirsene thairof nor his hienes licence haid and obteoit 
to that eflect wharin tholr presumptioun is so muche the 
moir greater in that thir levyis ar maid aganis hia Majesteis 
darrest bruthir the King of Denmark his Majeatie haveing 
fonuerlie refuisit the King of Swaden to grant him ony 
supplie of men or vtherwjB for hia assistance aganis the said 
EJng of Denmark, And besydis this heich presumptioun of 
the personis foirsaidis thay half to the fardir contempt of 



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HISTORICAL DOCUMEKTS. 161 

the Kingis Majeatie and misregard of law ordoiir and justice 
viokntlie preseit and tane a grite nomber of honneat menis 
baimis and serrandis hes put thame in echipl>oard aganis 
tbair will and intendis to transport thame to the countrey of 
Swaden whareupon suche ane universall complaynt murmour 
and greif of his Majesteis aubjectis is raisit throughout tho 
haiU countrey as yf thay levit not in the conditioun of 
frie subjectis bot war undir tho slaverie and tirrannie of 
strangearis quhilk being ane abuse intollerable and not hard 
of in a free kingdome the same aucht to be advertit to pre- 
ventit and stayed And tbairfoir the saidis lordis ordanis 
lettres to be direct to command charge and inhibit all and 
aindrie personis bering the name of Golonell or Capitane 
within this Kingdome and all utheris haveing commandiment 
under tbame that thay nor nane of thame presome nor tak 
upoun hand to cary or transport f urth of this realme to the 
said Kingdome of Swaden ony sojowris or men of weare 
upoun quhatsomevir cullour or pretens, And that thay 
onnawys presse nor tok ony men heirefter under the pane of 
dead certifelng thame that failyeea or dois in the contrair 
that thay salbe takin apprehendit and execute to the dead 
without favour and without ony respect of thair birth 
qualyteia or uther conditioun quhatsomevir, And siclyke to 
command charge and inhibite the maisteris awnaris and 
marineris of all and quhatsomevir schippis and veschellis 
that thay onnnwys presome nor tak upoun hand to nak saJll 
nor to transport ony of the aaidis sojouris and men of weare 
listit and tane up for the saidis weares of Swaden under the 
foirsaid pane of dead And yf neid beis to fens and arrest^he 
saidis schippis and to tak the saillis from the raes swa that 
thay depairt not As alswa to command and charge ail 
schirefGs justices of peace provestis and bailleis of burrowia 



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16S mSTOSICAL DOCUMENTS. 

and utheria jndgeis officiaris snd mt^pstratis to burgh and 
land, tliat whenevir thay salbe adverteist be oomplaynt or 
athirwys that ony perBoaJs ar preiat and tane to be trans- 
portit as Baid is that thay immediatlie rais his Majesteis 
Bubjectifi nixt adjacent yf neid beis and releve the persone or 
personis Bwa tane and prRst agania thair will, And i^at thay 
tak and apprehend auche perBoniB as ar the takaris of -thame 
and keepe thame in sure firmance quhill ordour be tane for 
thair tiyall and punneishment as appertinetii. 



ProclmnuUoD iciatt 



Foraamekle as the lordis of secrete counsell hes ressavit 
aindrie informationis that of laite thair 
hes bene ane verie extraordinar and 
Bw«dmi. uncowtbe oppressioun committit upoun 

divera of cure soverane lordis good aubjectia be certane 
peraonia undir the pay and command iment of the Capitanea 
and otheria bowne for the wearee of Swaden who haveing 
sliaikiu af all reverence of the law and regaird of ordour 
modeatie and discretioun hea most prcaumptouslie at thair 
handis without lauchfuU warrand power or comiuissioun 
violentlie prest and tane a grite many honnest menis sones 
and eervandia and hea caryed thame to thair schippis agania 
thair will of purpois to transport thame to Swaden And 
the further to testifie thair most preanmptoua and heich 
contempt divers of tharae in swaggering manner gois athorte 
thff countrey awayting the tyme and occasioun how and 
whair thay may apprehend ony personis travelling in thair 
lauchfuU adois and yf thay may be maisteris of thame thay 
immediatlie lay handis on thame and be force and violence 



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HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS. 163 

caryis thame to the nixt Bhoir whair thay h&if thair boites iu 
reddines to tak tbame aboard of thair shippis sua that thair 
is suche a feir and dredour rissin amangia the commoun 
people that nane of tbame dar travel! in thair lauchfull adois 
unles thay be accompanyed and upoun thair gaird able to 
withstand and resist the violence and injuria of the saidis 
personis and divers young and able fellowis who war resolvit 
to half come to thir pairtis to half awaitit upoun the harvest 
and cutting down of the cornia, ar upoun the occasioun foir- 
said afirayit to come heir This is ane abuse and contempt 
most intoUerable the lyk quhairof hes not bene hard of in 
this kingdome Wharin althoch the lordia of hia Majeateia 
previe counsell hea bene most cairfuU to haif tane ordour 
and accordinglie to haif punneist the committaris of thir 
enormiteis, yitt in regaird of the silence of these who hes 
sustenit wrang and that no particular complaynt hes bene 
maid heirupoun to the aaidis lordis The ordour taking with 
this abus and contempt bea bene neglectit and ovirsene 
Alwya the saidis lordis considering how far the ovirsicht 
and impunitie of suche ane offens may prejudge bis Majesteis 
good Bubjectis heireftir yf upoun this preparative and example 
utheris undewtifuU personia aall presome to attempt the lyk 
And the saidis lordia being verie deSyroua to gif contentment 
and satisfactioun by cours of justice to suche personis as will 
complaine and justifie thair complaintia Tbairfoir ordanea 
lettres to be direct chargeing officiaris of annes to pas to the 
marcat croce of Edinburgh and uthiris places neidfuU and 
thair be oppin proclamatioun to intimat and declair to all 
bis Mf^esteia aubjectia who hes suatenit ony barme or violence 
of the saidis personis that yf thay will complaine to the aaidis 
lordia and juatifie and qualitie thair complaintia that thay 
sail haif suche favorable justice minJstrat unto thame as 



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IM HISTORICAL DOCUUENTS. 

nil gif unto thame aatUfactioan and salbe ane terronr to all 
utheris to committ the lyk enormiteis heirefter. 



Chu(* aiuli Opi- 



Foraamekle as the Kingia Majestie and lordis of secrete 
coansetl ar informed that C&pitaae 
Hay Gapitane ' Ker and Capitane Sin- 
™"™"' clar hea tane up and listit some com- 

panyis of men within thb kingdome to be tranaportit to 
the weares of Swadeu his Majestie noways being aequented 
nor maid foirsene tbairof nor his Majest«is licence hald and 
obtenit to that effect wharin thair presumptioun is so niucho 
the moir in that thir levjris ar maid aganis his Majesteis darrest 
bruthir the King of Denmark his Majestie haveing fonnerlie 
refuised the King of Swaden to grant him ony supplie in 
t^at qnerrell. And besydis this heich presumptioun of tlie 
saidis Capitanes to levey bis Majesteis bomB subjectis to serve 
a foireynnar without his Majesteis allowance thay half to 
the further contempt of the Kingia Majestie violentlie tane 
grite nombaris of honnest menis baimis and serrandis and 
hes caryed thame aboord of thair schippis quhair they ar 
detenit as slaves and captaTes aganis thair will quhill the 
commoditie of thair transport be offerrit This is ane abuse 
most intollerable, the lyk quhairof hes not bene hard of in 
this Eingdome qubairupoun suche ane general! and universall 
complaint is maid be his Majesteis subjectis throughout the 
haill Kingdome a& yf thay levit not in the conditioun of frie 
subjectis bot war under the slaverie and tyrrannie of stran- 
gearis Thairfoir the saidis lordis ordanes lettres to be 
direct to command charge and inhibite the saidis three Capi- 
tanes and utheris officiaris and memberis of thair companyis 



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HlflTORICAL DOCUMENTS. 165 

that th&y onnawyB presome nor tak uponn hand to cary or 
transport furth of this realme to the said Kingdome of Swaden 
ony sojouria and men of weare under quhateomevir cuUour 
or pretext qnhill first thay obtene licence of oure Soverane 
Lord to that efifect, and that this licence be intimat to his 
Majesteis counsell and thair consent haid thairunto under 
the pane of dead As alsua that thay onnawise presome to 
presse and be violence to tak and detene ony men heirefter 
under the said pane certifeing thame that failyees or sail do 
in the contrair heirof that thay salbe followit and persewit 
taiin apprehendit and execute to the dead without favour 
And siclyk to command charge and inhibite the maisteris 
awnaris skipperis and marinaria of all and quhataomevir 
sbippis and veshellis that thay onnawyae presome nor tak 
upoun hand to lonae and mak saill nor to transport ony of 
the saidis Capitanes or thair companyis furth of this realme 
under quhatsomevir cullour or pret«as under the pane of 
confiscation of the saidis schippis and veschellia to his 
Majesteis use, and furder under the pane of dead to be 
execute upoun the saidia maisteris awnaria skipperis and 
marineris incais thay failyee in the premissis, And for this 
effect to fena and arrest the saidia schippis and veschellis and 
to tak thair saillis fra the raea quhairthrough thay depairt 
not And to command and charge the provestis and bailleis 
of the burrowia and townea in wboae roadis or harboryia the 
saidis schippis and veshellis ar lyand that thay go aboard of 
the saidia schippis concurre with his Majesteis officeris in 
making of the said arrestment and taking of the sullis fra 
the raes And siclyk that thay examine the haill personia 
being within the saidis schippis quhidder or not thay haif 
bene violentlie ta,ne and detenit aganis thair willis and yf 
ony within the aaidis schippis will complene of violent taking 



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166 HISTORICAL DOCOMBNT8. 

Mid detentionn, that the saidia provestis and baillek see thame 
put to libertie furtli of the saidis shippis And siclyk to 
command and charge all schireffis justices of peace and 
utheris mogistratiB and officeris to burgh and land that 
qubensoevir thay sail heir or be adverteist be complaint or 
ntherwis that ony personis ar violentlie tane and detenit 
that thfly imraediatUe rys follow and persew the same per- 
Bonis and the takaris of thame and keep thame in sure fir- 
mance quhill ordour be tane for thair triall and punneish- 
ment as appertinetb. 



Foraamekle as the lordis of secrete counsell hes laitlie 
Chun ■««>[• CoiwitU rfissavit some directioun from the Kingis 
•'"°'v- Majeatie concerning thir men of weare 

listit under the pay and command of Colonell Bam- 

say to be transportit to the veares of Swaden Thairfoir 
the saidis lordis ordanes lettres to be direct chargeing the 
said Colonell Ramsay to compeir personalia befoir the 

saidis lordis uponn the morue efter the charge to heir and 
de his Uajesteis will pleasour and directioun in this mater 
imparted and signifeit unto him and such ordour tone thairin 
as may gif unto his Majestie contentment and satisfactioun 
under the pane of rebellioun etc. with certiticatioun et& 

Followis his Majesteis missive and warrant for the pro- 

clamatiounis and actis abovewritten. 

Richt truatie and richt weilbelovit cosen and counsellour 

We greit you weill At what tyme the last service of Sir 

Robert Ker of Ancrum in the Midle schyres wes relaitit 

unto ws, we understood that he baid apprehendit a nomber 



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HISTORICAL DOCUMEXTa. 167 

of malefactouris quhairof some wer executed some sett at 
libertie upoim cautioun and some sent to Swaden, whiche 
last poiot we nather could then nor yett can understand 
what it meaneth, for whareas it is said that thair is a 
Colonell and certane Capitanes leveying men thair to go to 
Sweden we wonder that ony subject of ouris dare presome 
in that kjnd to serve ony forreyno prince not onlie yithout 
oure licence bot directtie aganis oure meaning and speciall 
promeis maid to our dears bruther the King of Denmark : 
in respect quhairof we planelie refuiait tlie King of Swaden 
to assist or send ony of oure subjcctis to his service and also 
recalled Sir James Spena of Wolmerstoun not sufierring him 
ather ony longer to serve the said King or to remane in his 
dominionis till now that we haif sent him as our ambassa- 
dour It is thairfoir our pleasour that ye certifie us what 
that leveying of soldiouris meaneth by what authoritie it is 
done and that ye mak stay of all proceiding thairin till 
yee sail be adverteist of oure fardir pleasour concerning 
that mater. And so we bid you fairweill at our court at 
Eirbie the last of July 1612. 



Apud Edinburgh quinto Augueti 1G12. 
Sederunt 
Sbcbetbr Sir Jeoeouv Murrat 

Advooat Sir Johhhb Arhot 

The lordia of secrete counsel! according to the Eiugis 

cbmige iginii mill- Majesteis will pleasour and directioun 

tertaotbhlppis. signifeit Unto tbamc ordanes officeris of 

armes to pas command and charge the maisteris awneris 

akipperis and marineris of shippis and veshellis frauohted 



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168 HISTORICAL DOCOMSNTS. 

for toaDBpcnt of Bojouria to Bwaden, th&t thay bring in 
tfaair ehippui to the harborie of Lejrth and thair suffer 
thame to I7 and onnawise lovse nor depairt quhill thay 
nnderstond l^e connsellis will and pleaeour towardiB thame 
within twa houria nixt efter the charge undir the pane 
of rebellioun and putting of thame to the home, and yf 
thay failyee the said space being bipaat to denunce thame 
rebellia and to put thame to the home and to command 
and charge the Admirall and his deputis the provest and 
bailleis of Edinburgh the baiUeis of Leyth and Bnmtyland 
to convocat his Majesteis lieges yf neid beis and to go 
aboard of the saidis schippis and to see this directioun and 
command be satisfeit and obeyit and as the occasioun sail 
fall out upouu the refuisEdl and diBsobodience of the saidis 
akipperis or oppositioun and resistance to be maid be ony of 
the personiB within the schippis, that the saidis Admirall 
provest and bailleis with the concummce and assistance of 
bis Majesteis goode subjectis to be assemblit be thame, com- 
pell and force the saidis skipperia and marineria to gif thair 
obedyence and to bring thair shippis to the said harborie, 
for doing quhairof thir presentis solbe unto thame a wai^ 
rant and commissioun Ajid yf ony peraonia being within 
the saidia schippis Gomplene of thair forceable detentioun 
and that the Gapitanes and utheris refuis to put thame to 
libertie, that the saidis Admirall provest and bailleis assist 
and see thame put to libertie, and suche malefactouris as wer 
delyverit unto the Capitanes to be transportit that the said 
Admirall provest and bailleis tak thame bring thame ashoir 
and put thame in sure finuance quhill thay understand the 
counsellis will towardis thame. 



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HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS. 



Apad Edinburgh dedmo quinto AnguBti 1612. 
Sederunt 

BLANTTItE 

SECWTTSa Advocat 

KlI3TTH SiK JOHNNB ABNOT 

Forsamekle as it hes pleasit the KingiB Majestie upoun 
Chugs iwuK MBU- some apeciall caussta and considerationis 
i™*"^ to g^f ordour and directloon that the 

companyis of men laitlie listed undir the charge and com- 
mandiment of Colonell Ramsay and some uthem capitanes 
for the weares of Swaden ealbe brokin and that thay sail 
noway be transportit to Swaden to serve in these wearrea, 
And seing the saidis companyis according to his Majesteis 
pleasour and commandiment ar now to be sett on land 
to the effect that thay and eveiy ane of tbame may repair 
to the placeis of thaar former aboad and residence and 
thair attend thair aeverall charge and calling Necesaar it is 
for the better preserving of his Majesteis peace and keeping 
of good reule ordour and quyetnes in the countrey and for 
eschewing of euche disordouris and insolencyis as may fall 
out alsweill amangis the companyis thameselffis as be tliair 
ocoasioun aganis his Majesteis good aubjectia yf thay be 
sufferrit ony space to remane togidder or to travell in nom- 
beria and companyis through the countrey That thairfoir 
immediatlie efter thair landing thay dissolve thame selffia 
and that no nomberis of thame remane togidder hot that 
thay aeperat thame aelffis and addresse thame in peaceable 
and quyet manner without offending his Majeateia subjectis 
in thair travelling through the countrey, ffor quhilk purpoia 
ordanes lettres to be direct to command and chaise all and 
sindrie personis listed and tane up for the wearros of Swaden 
be oppin proclamatioun at the ahoir and peir of Leyth at the 



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170 HISTORICAL DOCUUBNTS. 

merest croc6 of Brantjlaiid and utheris plitcea neidfull, th&t 
^ay and every ane of thame Tithin the space of tua bouris 
after tbair landing dissolve thameselffis and repair every ane 
of thame in qujet and peaceable manner to tb&ir awne 
dwellingis and placets of residence and that no nomberis nor 
companyiB of thame exceiding tua personis remane tcgiddir 
Upoun qubataomevir cullour or pretiinR under t)ie pane of 
dead Oertifeing thame tliat failyces or dois in the contrair 
that thay salbe apprehendit and the said pane of dead exe- 
cute upoun thame and to command and charge all schireffis 
justices of peace and mogistratis to burgh and land, that 
thay and every ane of thame as tbay sail bappin to cballange 
ony personis travelling through the counti^y who ar or may 
be Buapeotit to be men of wearre yf thay pas tua in nomher 
or yitt yf thay commit ony disordour or insolence ia tbair 
going through the countrey that thay apprehend tbame and 
cominitt thame to waird as nalefactouris and deteno thame 
quhill ordour be gevin for thair puneisbment. 



The lordis of secrete counsel! baveing bard tbe proposi- 
Act Meat tbe Unding tioun maid be Colonel! Ramsay tuiche- 
d( ihe toidignrti. jug ]^ -willing diapositioun to randir 

bis obedience to the EJngis Majestic by disaolveing and 
brecking of the companyis of men of wearre laitlie listit under 
his regiment and commandiment for the n^earres of Swaden 
and tuicheing tbe advis and opinioun cravit be liim in vbat 
forme and ordonr be sould dissolve his companyis and quhair 
he sould sett tbame on land The saidis lordis being advisit 
with the said propositioun tbay half prescryvit and sett down 
to tbe said Colonell tbe ordour following to be oteervit and 



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HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS. 171 

keept be him in the dissolving and landing of his saidis com- 
panyis, videlicet, that he sett the ane half thairof aland at 
Lejth and the uther half of the same at Bruntyland, and 
that the said Colonetl tak exact trial! and esaminatioun 
amangis his capitaaes and sojouris what personis wer de- 
lyverit to thame be the commissionaris of the lait bordouria 
and quhat uthiris personis thay haif ressavit out of the toil- 
buith of Edinburgh and Dunbar And that he caus all thir 
personis be delyverit in suirtie to the bailleis of Edinburgh 
to be comnuttit to waird in thair toilbuith ay and quhill 
ordour be tane with thame as appertynes, and that this pairt 
be first performed afoir the landing of the rest of the com- 
panyis. 



Apud Edinburgh ij Septembris W12. 
Sederunt 

CUAHCBLLAB JUSTICR CLERK 

RoxBUBQU Clerk Rajisteb 

Bla^ttrb Advocat 

Prrsidbkt Sib Alexandkb Dbuhonu 

Fbbtiesbill S[b Johnne Abnot 

The lordis of secrete counseil ordanes lettres to be direct 
ChHj.M«.i.Coi(«.di chargeing Colonell Kamsay 

K™"7- to compeir personalie befoir the saidis 

lordis upoun the xviij day of September instant to 
answer to auche thingis as salbe demandit of him tuiche- 
ing the lait levey maid be him of a grite nomber of his 
Majeateis aubjectia to haif bene transportit be him furth of 
this realtne for the weares of Swaden under the pane of 
rebellioun and putting of thame to the home with certifica- 
tioun to him and he faUyee lettres salbe direct aimpliciter to 
put hiro tliairto. 



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ITS HISTOaiCAL DOCVMESTS. 

9. 
Apod EdinlMli^ x*ilj Septoml»4B 161S. 
Sademnt 
Chahokuai Pubidikt 

E&OTLI Clibk Kmibtkb 

MOMTBOU Adtocat 

LorTHum JcinicB Clebk 

RoxBDBaa Sib jMnaoim Mitbrat 

Anent the charge gevin be vertev of onrB Sovenuie lordis 
DrauMColMiaU lettres to Colonell Andro Ramsay to 
*«"»*)'■ haif comperit penotutHe befoir the lordis 

of secrete coanseU this present auchtene day of September 
instant to haif answerit to suche thingis as sould haif bene 
demandit of blm tuicheing the Uit levey maid be him 
of a grite nomber of hia Majesteis subjectia to haif bene 
tranaportit be him farth of this realme for the wearea of 
Swaden nttder the pane of rebeUioun and putting of him to 
the home with certificatioun to him and he [failyeed] lettres 
wald be direct simpUciter to pnt him tliairto l;k as at mair 
lentil is contenit in the saidis lettrez ezecntionis and indoisa- 
tionis thairof Qufaitkis being callit and the said Golonetl 
Andro Ramsay not comperand Thairf oir the lordb of secrete 
counsell ordanes lettres to be direct chargeing officeria of 
armes to pas and denunce the said Colonell Andro Ramsay 
bis Majesteis rebell and to put him to his bienes home (md 
to escheat etc 



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DOCUMENTS* FROM STATE ARCHIVES, 
STOCKHOLM. 



COUMISSION FBOU GDSTAVUS ADOLPBUS TO BtR JAMBS 8PENS. 

GusTAVfls Adolphus, Dei gmtU, Sveconuu, Gothonun, Wandalorumq* 
princepe htereditiuius ; Magnus dox Finlandiie, Eathoniffi WsBinaii- 
niieq* priDoepa, etc. 

Oratiam favoreiu, Bingularemq' noBtram benignitatem atq* 
olementiam etc illustris et generose nobis sincere dilecte, 
domine Jacobs Spentz ; non dubitamus qvin recenti in 
memoria habeas, qvid sereuissimo potentissimoq* principi ac 
Domino, Domino CAROLO nono, Svecorum, Gothorum, 
Wandalorumq* regi etc Domino et parenti noetro charissimo, 
laudatissimee recordationis, sancte sincereq" promiseris, qvidve 
Sua Regia Majestas h te clement^r suaa per literas postu- 
lavcrit Cum itaq* beltum k rege Danie advcrsus Dominum 
parentem pie sancteq' pnedefunctum, nos, nostramq* patriam 
iniqve susceptum continuetor, et nos ad reprimendos hostium 
impetus, milite etiam peregrino indigeamus, earn ob causam 
te qvam dementer rogatum volumus, ut cum ter miUenis 



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174 HISTORICAL DOCUilENTS. 

illiB promiflsis, probate fidei spectatieq' fortitudinis militibns, 
et qvidem pedltibos (equitea enim non curamus) tuum ad 
noa reditum matures, omnemq* in id operam impeadaB, ut ad 
Calendaa ApriliB, aimi iam proximi seqveatiB, cum prtefato 
militiun unmero armis neceseariia probfe inatructo, in porta 
Elsbui^geusi comparere qveaa. Hoc autem ut e6 felicius 
faciliusq* pnestarc valeas, ntq* nos absq' mora et tergi- 
veraatione, ta& militumq* tuorum oper& adreraus hoBtes 
nostros ati possimus, clementer tibi, vel plenam abs t« 
potestatem habentibuB viginti millenos imperiales, in civi- 
tat« HamburgeoBi, per gerenissims regime, matris ncstrte 
cb&riBainife, nostroaq* commisearios numerandos curabimus ; 
clementer etiam atq' etiam deaidcrantes, ut earn, qui 
aerenissimo parenti, gloriostssimfe memorise, obligatas tene- 
baris, fidelitatem eerenissims qvoq* matri nostne, nobis, 
nostrisq* regniB prtestare hand tergiverseris. Cum prteterea 
cerU> nobis persvaaum Labeamus, heec omnia, aliaq* salutem 
aoetram, nostrorumq* regnorum incrementum concementia 
(quse iudieio tuo tueeq' discretioni relinqvimus), per te qvam 
diligentissinie eSectum iri, non dubitabis qvin ipaum id, 
qvemadmodum etiam qvicqvid ia pnefatos milites, ultra 
viginti millenos illos imperiales, nostro nomine impenderia, 
tibi k nobis, suo tempore, qvam clementissime compensetur. 
Porro tibi aignifioandum dujdmua, nos cum duce nostro, nobis 
sincere dilecto Johanae Moenichovio, transegisse, ut millenos, 
omnibus necesaariis armis prob^ itistructos, milites pedites, 
ex Hollandia, Tere primo, Elsburgain asportet Si itaq' navea 
militesq* tuos navibus prfenominati MaBnichovii adjunxeria, 
foret boc nobis qvam gratissimum. Ita enim esset olassia 
vestra hostium classi, si forte vobis obviam venerit, non 
modo par, verum etiam, ut bene speramua, longe superior. 
Qvod te baud celandom c 



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HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS. 



Hisce divini numinis protectioni te clementer commenda- 
uus. Ex arce Nycopensi, die 16 Novembris, Ami 1611. 



niuBtri et generoso, copianim nostranim Britannicarum 
gener&li, Domino Jacobo Spente, libero baroni in Wolmer- 
sthon, etc. 

{Traeet oj a tttd.) 



Tran^atien. 
GuHTAVUS Adolphub, by the grace of Qod, EtrtdUary Prince of Ihe Sviedet, 
the Qotht, and the VandaU; Grand Duke of Finland, PHnee of 
fitAonur, Waimannia, tbi. 

Our gracious favour, special benignity and grace, etc. 
Illustrious and noble, our truly and dearly beloved Sir James 
Spena ; we have no doubt that you keep fresh in memory 
your sacred and true promise to the most serene and mighty 
Prince and Lord, Charles the Ninth, King of the Swedes, 
the Goths, Vandals, etc. , our dearly beloved I^ord and Sire, 
of highly extolled memory, (aa to) what his Royal Kajesty 
graciously required from you in his letters. Therefore, in- 
asmuch as the war, unrighteously entered upon by the King 
of Denmark i^jainst our Sovereign Sire, predeceased in the 
odour of sanctity, against ourselves, and against our country, 
is continued, and we are in need of foreign soldiers as well 
[aa native], wherewith to check the attacks of the enemy, — on 
this account we request yon with all courtesy to hasten your 
return to us with those promised three thousand soldiers of 
proved faithfulness and bravery, and, namely, infantry (for 
we do not care to have cavaliy) ; and that you will do your 
best to be present in El&borg Harbour by tie first of April 
14 



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176 BISTOSICAL DOCUitENTS. 

in tluB next coming year, with Uie before-mentioned number 
of troops, properly equipped with the needful occoutrementB. 
Now, tb&t joa may be in a condition to do tJiia the more 
Bnccesafully and easily, and that we, without delay and iu- 
termption, may be able to avail ourselves of your services 
and those of your soldiers against our enemies, we shall 
graciously order twenty thousand imperials, to be paid in the 
city of Hamburg, to you or to those folly authorized by you, 
through the agents of the Most Serene Queen, our dearly 
beloved Mother, and our own, urgently entreating yon not to 
hesitate to observe tiie same loyalty by which you were held 
bound to our Most Serene Fattier of very glorious memory, to 
our Most Serene Mother also, to ourselves and our realms. 
Moreover, while we are surely persuaded that all these 
things, and others that concern our safety and the aggran- 
dizement of our kingdom (which things we leave to your 
judgment and discretion), will be attended to by you with 
tiie utmost care, yon will rest assured that the aforesaid 
sum, as also whatever you shall disburse in our name upon 
the above-mentioned soldiers over and above the twenty 
thousand imperials, shall be most graciously repaid by us at 
the proper time. Furthermore, we have thought right 
that it should be notified to you that we have arranged with 
our general, our truly beloved Johannes Mtenichovius, that 
he is to transport his thousand infantry, fully furnished 
with necessary arms, from Holland to EUsborg in the be- 
ginning of the spring. If, therefore, you combine your fleet 
and army with the ships of the aforesaid Mcenichovins, we 
shall be extremely glad. For thus the combined fleet would 
be not merely equal to the enemy's fleet, if it should chance 
to come in contact with you, but, as we are justified in 
hoping, far superior. And we have considered that this 



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msTOBlCAL DOCOUESTS. 177 

should not be concealed from you. Herewith we graciously 
oommend yon to the protection of the divine Deity (Power). 
From the Castle of Nykoping, November 16, in the year 
1611. Gdstatcb Aiwlphdu. 



Letter from Bib Bobkbt Anstbdthbb (o Sib James Spens. 

Honarabile and my verie good Lord my best service r 
membred unto your selfe 



in England all things are in lyke staite as you left I have 
recauite toe sundre letters from his Maieste, wh&rin he com- 
mands me to excuse his pairte, annent that leuie of men 
whitch coronell ramsay haith maide in Scotland, he protests 
at it is score aglenst his will and altogiddar disauntches the 
deede sainge at if he haide not heard of it in time, he haide 
biene the most dishonored prince by ther goinge, bot the are 
stayed and the men dissolved, except neere four hundreth * 
that went awaye afore the koald be stayed, captaine Hay, 
and captaine Sinckler, and captain Allezander ramsay brother 
to the princes man, and good Sir herie brusse are chanched 
in norrowaye, and are all killd by the bourrs except some 
£aue prisoners, whitch are send for to be examined and we 
looke for them daylie ; the common broict blames you to be 
ther heade bot I stifflie denie it, assuring the king that I 
deare giue my woorde for your Innocence ; other neus heere 



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178 BfSTORICAL DOCVMESTS. 

Faruell from Koppenhauen the 26 of September Anno 
1612 your trene and affectiouet 

and seruant att all time 

Robert A-nstbdthek 

To Uie tyght hononiblel and my very 

good Lodl : The Lord off Wor- 

meHton, AmbaiHulour from Hia 

MU* n( Gntt Bnttaine to Sueden. 



My Lord this gentleman Williame Stuart my seruant 
whome I ame bond to doo for bothe for his fathers cans 
whome I did affect, as also for his own, haueing giuen 
sufficient proue of his good cariage, a yeare ago did lift a 
company of fotmen to serue His Ma"* of Sweden to his great 
Losse, Be reason that after he had sent before some parte 
of his company t whiche was stayed in Norway, himself with 
the rest was stayed by the kings comandement heare. Wher- 
fore the gentleman hauing an earnest desyre to giue proue 
of his affection to his M'"" seruice could not be stayed be 
any persuasion of frends frome the said jomay : therfore out 
of the asseurance I doo giue my self of your L>* loue, I most 
recommend him to y' L favor, that for my cans you will" vse 
the means to got him preferred, and what charge soever His 

• Son of Eame Stewart of Aubigny, the firat fftTourite of King Jamea I. 
His uncle, Kobert, ninth earl of Lennox, haTuig agreed to accept the Borl- 
dom of March in eichange for that of Lennox, he, in March 1580, received 
t, chu-ter of the latter earldom, which a year later was erected into a 
didiedom. 

t Alexander Ramsay made no mention of these men in hia deposition. 
(See page 146.) 



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HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS. 17fl 

Ma"* shall esteem him worthie of I wil bee a.nBweai'able for 
his fidelitie and duetifubies in the same and I shall reputed 
it ase a singulare pleasure done to m; self and shall alwyse 
be reddy to requyte it and all other your L. kyndnesaes in 
what soever occasion I can stand you in stead : therfore 
trusting in your furtherance for this gentlemans preferment 
I shall ever rest 

Your L^ very Looing trend 
Lenox. 
Frome the H^^ the 14 (I9T) of Maj 1613. 



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DOCUMENTS* FROM STATE ARCHIVES, 
COPENHAGEN. 



Fint Offlcuil Report to the Dahibh Chahouak reapecting the Soottish 
Expedition, from the Norw%{ui Stadtbolder Ehtold Erdsb and 
Othen. 

Trantlationfivm tin DamA-f 

iAddrtu.) 

Our moet friendly greeting noir and ever in the Lord I 
Dear Lord Chancellor, particularly good friend, we thank 
the Chancellor kindly for favours evinced, which we would 
at all times desire to repay in whatever manner might be to 
the honour or benefit of the Chancellor. 

In the next place, we cannot omit to communicate to the 
Chancellor somewhat at length, on account of the nature of 
the matt«r, how on or about the 19th or 20th of August 
last two Scottish ships arrived off Romsdalen, in the province 
of Bergenhuus, with a number of soldiers, and landed them 
there. What ports those ships hailed from, and by whom 

• In manuscript. 

f From a. copy made from the original munucript at Copenhagen, and 
more perfect than that obtained hy Dean Krag. The thanlu of the 
author are due in this respect to Mr. J. F, R. Kr&nip, lUgistrai of the 
Danish State Archives, sa well as to Messrs. Herbst and Blom of Copen- 
hagen for researchcfl undertaken at the kind request of Profawor George 
Stephena, LL.D., also of Copenhagen. Moat of the proper names in this 
translation have lieea modernized. 



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BISTORICAL DOCUMENTS. 181 

they were fitted out, as also who it was that procured them, 
is to be ascertained from their own report and depoBition 
hereunto annexed.* 

And straightway the next day after their arrival they 
betook themselves inland, and proceeded along the country 
road over a ^'eld called Mseratoppene, whereopon they 
entered the valley of Oudbrandsdat, which b to the Bouth- 
ward of the mountain range, and in this province of 
A^ershnus; and they had taken with them t^o Bonder 
of Romsdalen as guides. But when one of his Boyal 
Majesty's tensmen in the parish of Vaage, which is situated 
in the above-mentioned bailiwick of Gudbraudsdal, by 
name Lauritz Hage, perceived this, he at once roused 
the Bdnder and peasantry in the two parishes of Ltessoe 
and Taage, and went forth against the said Scots and 
foreign troops. And when he perceived they were too 
strong for him, he advanced for two or three days and kept 
before them along the road, without, however, engaging in 
any skirmish or fight. Meanwhile, he sent messengers to 
the peasantry in the two adjoining parishes, called Froen 
and Bingebfie, who quickly came to hb assistance; and 
when they were in this manner gathered they were four 
hundred and five men strong. Thus he advEmced in front 
of them along the road until he saw his advantage at a 
fjeld called EJ-ingelen, situated in Yaage parish, which they 
were obliged to pass. Thus he hemmed them in between 
the rock on one side and a large river close by on the other 
side, in which advantageous position he quietly encamped 
in the woods, and there lay with his men until the foreign 
soldiers arrived there, without, however, supposing or know- 



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16> aiSTORICAL DOCUMEHTS. 

ing KUght bat that the Norwegian troops were stJll with- 
drawing along the ro«d before them. 

The AboTO-mentioned Lauritz Hage, having made his ar- 
nngementfl and perceived hie advantage, attaeked, together 
with another lensmand, Feder BankleS' of Ringeboe, and 
with all their men together they fired upon the foreign 
troops and shot them to death during an hour and a half. 
Those who were not shot jnmpcd into the river to save 
themselves, but were there drowned; and those of them who 
got alive over the river were quickly killed by the Bonder 
on that wde, — all of which happened and occurred on the 
26th of August last. 

From the Bonder who were themselves present at the 
battle, and who buried and counted the dead and the defeated, 
we lesm that the foreign soldiers must no doubt have 
numbered at the least five hundred and fifty men, although 
the Scots who remained alive, and of whom there are alto- 
gether eighteen, will not admit that they were more than 
three hundred and fifty men strong at the utmost 

On die day the battle took place one hundred and thirty-four 
Scots were taken prisoners, who were straightway the next 
day killed and shot by the Bonder, with the exception of the 
above-mentioned eighteen, the Bonder saying to each other 
that his Boyal Majesty had enough to feed in those same 
ei^teen. Some of these were, however, wounded, and some 
had bullets in their bodies when they arrived here. Of the 
above-mentioned eighteen soldiers we now send toyou the three 
principal ones, who are a captain of the name of Alexander 
Bameay, and his lieutenant of the name of Jacob Manne- 
penge (James Moneypenny), who has previously been both 
in Denmark and Sweden, and who on this their expedition 
served as an interpreter. The third is called Herrich Bryssz 



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HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS. 183 

(Henry or Harry Brace), who, accordiag to his own state- 
ment, has served asaBoldierinHollaad, Spain, and Hungary.* 

As regards the remaining fifteen persons, some of them 
have straightway taken service among good folk here in the 
country ; some of them who will willingly serve your Royal 
Majesty in Jorgen Lunge's regiment I sent at once to Elfs- 
borg. What has further occurred in this matter is, as already 
stated, all to be ascertained from their own statements, which 
are written down. As to what knowledge can be obtained 
from the letters that were found on them we can say 
nothing this time, for when they (the Scota) were taken 
prisoners the Bonder took all those letters to themselves, 
from which we now have our certain knowledge, (and) what 
can be ascertained from them, so soon aa we receive them, 
shall be straightway sent to the Chancellor ; and if we on 
our part can serve the Chancellor to his honour, advantage, 
and command, he shall always find us willing. The Chan- 
cellor is hereby commended to God Almighty. Done at 
Aggershuus the T7th of September 1612. 

(Signed) Enwoldt Krussze. Oluff Galde. 

Own hsnd. Own hand. 



(Sealed with their several signets on uncoloured wax.) 
* No mention of James Scott, who WM among the prisoners at Copen- 



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1S4 BTSTOJUCAL DOCUMENTS. 

Saooad OAoU Report to ths DAXias Chavoillob Mid thi Daofati BtaAk- 
holder mpectiDg tlie Soottiah Kipaditiun, from the Norwegian Stadt- 
holder Envoui KarBE and Others. 

TrtauUttitm frott On AiiiiiA.t 
{AMnm.) 

To tlie honourable and well-bom men, Christian Friis of 
^ambij, His Royal Hajestjr'a Chancellor, and Bretde Batmdt- 
zoir of Ranndtzshollen, His Majesty's Stadtholder, onr par- 
ticularly good friends, addressed in perfect Mendliness. 

Our most friendly greeting now and ever in the Lord. 
Dear frieoda, we thank you kindly for favours erinoed, 
which we would at all times desire to repay, in whatever 
manner might be to your honour or benefit 

Dear friends, our last letter to you announced that, so soon 
as we received informatioa from the bailie in Gudbrandsdal 
of certain letters found on the Scots who were defeated and 
taken prisoners at that place, we would forward it to yon as 
soon as we received the letters, in case that any reliable 
information should be found ia them' respecting their plans 
and armament. And we do not believe that there is any- 
thing in them from which any information on those points 
can be obtwned, so far as the said letters can be correctly 
read or construed. 

We have now recently been written to and informed that 
their real colonel t and captain, the person mentioned by the 
Scots themselves in the Scottish Relation (which we sent you 
last), is now at sea with four ships filled with Boldiera, with 
the same inteutioa as the others of landing the troops some- 
where in this country, and afterwards proceeding with them 

* ThiH translation has been made from a moifi perfect copy than the 
one hitliarto published, and for which the author ia indebted to Mr. U. 
Birkeland, Keeper of the State Atchives in Norway. 

+ No doubt Colonel Andrew Ranuay. 



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BI8T0RICAL DOCUMEIfTS. 186 

into Sweden. This the bailie at Soiidm6er has initteD to 
Lauritz Oram, who is bailie in Gndbrandsdalen. This ap- 
pears, however, not to be true, seeing that His Boyal 
Majesty of England has forbidden them to do this, as is to 
be further seen by the before-mentioned Relation which was 
forwarded to you. 

We have also since ascertained that those Scots who were 
defeated and captured on their march through this country 
lave absolutely neither burned, murdered, nor destroyed 
anything on their march through this country, either in 
Bomsdalen, or in Qudbrandsdalen, excepting alone one Dan- 
ish man, who lives in the Bomsdal, Sofirenn Settnes ; from him 
they have taken a box filled with various kinds of silver, 
both tankards, belts, " stabbe," and other such wrought silver, 
which man has now recently been in Gndbrandsdalen, to the 
bailie there, and wanted to get back his silver, if any of it 
had been found on the defeated Scots; but the Bander of 
Gndbrandsdalen will not hitherto acknowledge having got 
any. If otherwise is subsequently found to be the case, it 
shall all be returned to him. And it was the plan of the 
before-mentioned Scots to have made their way into Sweden 
through Gudbrandsdalen, over a mountain called Osterdals- 
fyAA, in the parish of Tonset, which they all could have done 
easily in five days' time at the utmost, had not God the 
most Almighty by this defeat them. 

Of the Norwegian people were only shot six men 

and ten or twelve somewhat "saa"...(lsaarede = wounded) 

remain alive. This "ligen" (^ will let you 

know.* And we will personally do whatever may be to your 

* The dots sbow where words are wanting, beouBe k [4e(M of pftper 
(which wag the upper part of that to which the BeaU were affixed) li lost 
fiom the third page. 



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186 BISTOSICAL DOCUMENTS. 

service or pleasure. Commending you hereby to God the 
most Almighty. Done at Aggershnus the third of October 
in the year 1612. 



Enwoldt Krcsszei. 
Own hand. 



Olupp Galde. 

Own buid. 



Andbbs Gkeeh. 
With own tund. 




Thia mannscript is endoraed, 

"Ehvold Krvszis, AtfDim Gbbrhs, 
OLVPr Galdis, and Fbdib IrruKBBKKs. 

"Letter. Rec^ (?) Haff. (Copenhagen) 4 Nov. 1G12. 

" 1. Respecting the Scattuh aoldient who were defeBtal in Gudbiands- 
dslen ; traiumittiiig a, great heap of letten found on them. 

"2. nieir teal commander Eiud to be at «e» with 4 ahipa; considered 
rnitnie. 

"8. TTiey neither took nor bnmed anything in Norway, onleaa it be 
some (!) Bilver they took from a Dane in B<imBdalsn." 



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3Enbex to ;:^ames of persons. 



LiilV,.I8,81,S3,ae,»B.Il 



Anitruther, Sir BolMrt, IS, IB, M, 96, 4^ < 
AiotU, buke of, 172. ' |16e! 17t! I 



Douglu, Robert, 19, IIT, 160, 1G&. 



BliksUnd, H., 1S4. 
BtHDsrck. PiinM, IS. 
ajelks. O.. Iffl. 
B]«iTUt|«rn^ H. da, 15 



Bntt, Thor, IZS. 
Breden, O., 92. 



Eekre, P.. 1S9. 
eUnlMtta. PrlcMU, 32. 
Eoebaa. B., 86. 

on, Vlscoiml, M, 146. 
FlBrdlneraen, E., 108, 120, I' 
Fredaridi. Elector PaUUiie, 
Predsiick III., 1211. 



Galde, 0., 183, 186. 



CalUmen, Eul oT, BO, SI, 127. 

Cilil«r,J. T., 14, n. 

Cui, «i Bobeit, 89, ««, IBS, 1< 

Cbsmban, 11. 

ClAdM IX., IS, 20, S3, 48, 4< 

Chrlitiu II., SO. 



Gnrl, 49, 101. 103, 104, lOS, 180. 
Ouitsvni Adolphu, 12, 14, 16, 18-10, 24, 

29-88, 41, es, IS, 1S4, I4S, 149, ISO, IBS, 

166, 1T3, I7B, ITT. 



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ISDSX TO 2TAMSS OF PERSONS. 



H*c*, L., It, U, GB, (»-K, W, 118, 1E8, 

Hakni VI., 1X1. 

HhUmU, Oanoiil, U, U, SO, 114, IM. 

B>r. Certain Q., M; W, tt, U, »,es, ST, 

141, 114, 14B, IM, 177. 
B*ftr«, Coon] noBH, M. 
B*t9^ JiAMmM, «, vet, in, 114. 
HvadanoB, J., fiO. 
Hapbnni, Blr J. , 14. 
H«brt,lBa. 

BJortliai, 04, K, lOi, lis, 123, 1». 
Bdiu, Kul, 1S8. 

Iinm, P., 1S8, IS6. 

Jihn, F. H., U, tS, M, fM. 
Jmma I. (^lud). l!i, Ifl, U, 3E-ST, ti, 
M, 47, (7, ItT, 1S7, 178. 



jucH V. (SooUuHi), es. 

John, IlDka, M, 149, lU. 
JohnHoD*, Lklrd of, M. 
Jtir^nrtod, A., K. 
Jada, C. J., IS, 24. 

Kaith, Eirl.Muilul, 38. 
Ko, CipUla, 88, 40, 164. 
K«r, Sli Bobeit. Stt Cur. 
KllUi, P., ISO. 
KlliTth, S«mitU7, 180, IBS. 
Kligo, Bidiap, 123. 



Kng, Est. H. P. S., 1£, 13, 43,84, 

128,180. 
Knitup, J. r. K., ISO 
EniH, E.. 13, 14, 42, 43, 49, M, 66, SI, 

79, S3, 85, S8, 90, 02, 95, 08, 187, lll>- 



Idctae, Sir Thomu, 13 
Lageihsim, C H. da, 1 
Liiiii«,14. 
Lunrtwd, A., 9S. 
LAorrlf, Count, 1S7- 



Lutotmo*, T., Ul, U7. 

LeHmanlh, 19, 149, US, IM. 

LeUDoi, Dok* of, St, 4^ 134, 1*8, IIS, 

Lunca, J., 54, IIS, lot, 157, 188. 

MKkir, Joka, SG. 

HkliuMm, G. O., 15. 
Hut, Quaa at Ssoti, 84. 

IbUmoB Punltx, 118. 

Ibtian, C, IS, 14B, 1£4. 

ICuwall, Lord, 50, tl. 

HIOH, QaiiBsl, 118. 

iSoBtjfomj, Jiauit, 48, M, IIS, 14£-144, 

Hbnnkhhofaii (MnskbkTaB, HenisomX 
li, 15-n, iS-SO, 82, 84, 87, 48, 58, n, 
75-78, 128, 186, 187, 144, 148, 149, 160, 

HontaCH,' 17£.' 
Hanao, QoHnl, 118. 
HuGh, A., 77. 
ItDDtha, 114. 
Itunrnj, Sir 3., 187. 

melHn, Yngnr, IT, O, M, 15, 80. 
Nilbgt, Jum, 45, 144, 148. 

Nordrdmo*, 87. 



Orknar, Xiri ol, 177, 133, U4. 
Owai II., King, tL, SC 
Otto, Ooraniat, 148, 15S. 



Footoppldu, BUiop, lis. 
Fottlngsr, Sli H., 71. 
Prjngla, ISl. 
Poffandorff, 12, 13, 78. 



BiJibek,X 
87, lis, H 



£, 43-48, 54, 50, Sfr< 



Andiaw, 19, 34, 35, 87-39, 41 
43-47, »9, SI, 68, JS5-137, 140, 142, 144 
148, 160, 152, J6S, IfiB, 157-169, 18> 

lUnuftj, Sir John, 35. 

Romni, J., 75, 

Buidklar, P., 13, 63, 95, las, 129, 182. 



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